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Family Alismataceae
Sagittaria sagittifolia Linn.

Ci gu

Scientific names Common names
Alisma sagittaria Stokes Gauai-gauai (S. L. Bis.)
Sagitta aquatica (Lam.) St.-Lag. Tikog (Bik.)
Sagittaria palustris Bubani Arrowhead plant (Engl.)
Sagittaria acuminata Sm. Arrowleaf (Engl.)
Sagittaria aquatica Lam. Broadleaf arrowhead (Engl.)
Sagittaria aquatica var. minor Gray Chinese arrowhead (Engl.)
Sagittaria bulbosa (Poir.) Donn Common arrowhead (Engl.)
Sagittaria gigantea E.Vilm. Duck potato (Engl.)
Sagittaria heterophylla Schreb. Giant arrowhead (Engl.)
Sagittaria lancifolia E.Vilm. Hawaiian arrowhead (Engl.)
Sagittaria major Scop. Old World arrowhead (Engl.)
Sagittaria minor Mil. Swamp potato (Engl.)
Sagittaria monoeca Gilib. Swan potato (Engl.)
Sagittaria sagittifolia Linn.  
Sagittaria sagittifolia var. aequiloba Schur  
Sagittaria sagittifolia var. angustata Tinant  
Sagittaria sagittifolia var. angustifolia Gaudin  
Sagittaria sagittifolia var. angustissima Boreau  
Sagittaria sagittifolia var. arifolia Rouy  
Sagittaria sagittifolia var. bollei Asch. & Graebn.  
Sagittaria sagittifolia var. butomoides Asch. & Graebn.  
Sagittaria sagittifolia var. divaricata Schur  
Sagittaria sagittifolia var. heterophylla (Schreb.) Schur  
Sagittaria sagittifolia var. minor (Mill.) Regel  
Sagittaria sagittifolia var. obtusa Bolle  
Sagittaria sagittifolia subvar. pumila Asch. & Graebn.  
Sagittaria sagittifolia var. stratiotes Bolle  
Sagittaria sagittifolia var. terrestris Bolle  
Sagittaria sagittifolia var. vallisneriifolia Coss. & Germ.  
Sagittaria sagittifolia f.vallisneriifolia (Coss. & Germ.) Neuman  
Sagittaria sagittifolia f. xanthandra Holmb.  
Sagittaria tenuior Gand.  
Sagittaria vulgaris Gueldenst.  
Vallisneria bulbosa Poir.  
Sagittaria sagittifolia L. is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
BRAZIL: Era-do-pantano, Seta-europeia.
CHINESE: Ci gu, Ye ci gu, T'Zu ku, Shui p'ing, Chieh ku, Chee-koo.
DUTCH: Pijlkruid.
FINNISH: Pystykeiholehti.
FRENCH: Flèche d'eau, Sagittaire, Sagittaire à feuilles en flèche.
GERMAN: Echtes, Pfeilkraut, Spitzes Pfeilkraut .
INDIA: Koukha, (Assam) Pani-kochu.
ITALIAN: Erba saetta, Occhio d'asino, Sagittaria comune.
JAPANESE: Kuwai, Omodaka zoku, Seiyou omodaka.
KOREAN: Keladi air.
MALAYSIAN: Keladir air.
NETHERLANDS: Gewoon, Pijlkruid.
PORTUGUESE: Erva-do-pântano, Espadena, Sagitária.
RUSSIAN: Strelolist obyknovennyi, Strelolist plavaiushchii, Strelolist strelolistnyi.
SPANISH: Cola de golondria, Cola de golondrina, Colomo, Erva frecha, Flecha de agua, Papa del agua, Saeta de agua, Sagitaria.
SWEDISH: Pilblad, Vanlig.
THAI: Khaa khiat, Phak khaang kai.
TURKEY: Suoku.

General info
- The U.S. listed Sagittaria sagittifolia as a Federal Noxious Weed in 1981, cited as "impeding flow of water irrigation, interfering with water access, and reducing yield of rice.
- In the U.S. it appears on the noxious weed list for 46 states.
- In 1996, it was discovered the "arrowhead tubers" were approved in 1948 for importation as vegetables.
- Cultivated as a food crop in some countries.
- After review of risk assessment, it was kept on the Federal noxious weed list, prohibiting importation for propagation while allowing importation of the vegetable for consumption only.
- Since 1996, permits for tuber importation have been issued in Hawaii, California, and New York for human consumption during Chinese New Year, allowing movements from the months of November through March. (13)
- Etymology: The genus name Sagittaria derives from Latin sagittarius, meaning "pertaining to arrows" refers to the leaf blade which is shaped like the point of an arrow.
- Remnants of Sagittaria sagittifolia have been found in Paleolithic/Mesolithic site of Calowanie in Poland. (28)

Tikog is an aquatic plant, erect, stemless and usually perennial. Leaves are arrow-shaped, 10 to 35 centimeters long; the petioles are long, often long than the leaves, with 3 to 5 whorls of 3 to 5 flowers, each 1 to 2 centimeters in diameter; the lower whorls are female, and the upper, male, with longer pedicels. Petals are white, with yellow center. Achenes are flat, obliquely obovate, apiculate, with broad wings.

- Introduced.
- An aquatic plant found in fresh-water swamps, rice paddies, etc., at low and medium altitudes In the Luzon Provinces of Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Tayabas, Camarines, Albay and Sorsogon; and in Catanduanes, Samar, Leyte, and Mindanao.
- Native to
Altay, Austria, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Central European Rus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East European Russia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Krasnoyarsk, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, South European Russi, Sweden, Switzerland, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Tuva, Ukraine, West Siberia, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia. (10)

- Study isolated a new diterpene, sagittariol, characterized as labda-7,14-dien-13(S,17-diol.

- Study of whole plant isolated seven new ent-rosane diterpenoids, sagittines A-G (1-7), along with one new labdane diterpene, 13-epi-manoyl oxide-19-O-α-L-2'-5'-diacetoxyarabinofuranoside (6). (see study below) (5)
- Study of methanol extract isolated one terpenoid and identified as sandaracopimaric acid. (see study below) (8)
- Phytochemical screening of tubers and leaf extracts and solvents yielded tannin, saponins, flavonoids, phenols, steroids, glycosides, protein, amino acids, starch, reducing sugars, and alkaloids. Phytochemicals were highest in the ethanol extract. (14)

- Acrid.
- Considered diuretic, antiscorbutic, galactagogue.
- Studies have suggested hepatoprotective, antibacterial, immunosuppressive and antioxidant properties.

- Ingestion of raw tubers may cause fluxes, diarrhea, weakness and hemorrhoids.
- Pregnant women should not eat them.

Parts used
Tubers, rhizomes, leaves.


- Tubers are edible.
- In Japan and China, a variety with starchy tubers is cultivated in rice paddies along small streams. The same form is also cultivated in the Trinidad Valley.
- In Vietnam, young leaves and rhizomes used in soups.
- In northeastern India, roots are steamed with sugar or prepared pakora along with besan. (4)
- Raw tuber has an unpleasant and bitter taste. Processing (baking, roasting, cooking) reduces bitterness and improves taste and flavor, resembling the taste of potato. Dehydrated and ground tuber is used in gruel and porridge or added to cereal flours in bread making. Roasting imparts a flavor similar to corn. (see study below) (18)
- Potential as antioxidant beverage. (see study below) (24)

- Tubers used for deficient lochia and retention of the placenta, as well as in gravel.
- Bruised leaves applied to foul sores, snakes and insect bites.
- Powdered leaves applied to relieve itching.
- Tubers used for skin diseases.
- Used as antigalactagogue, discutient, for colds, cough, tuberculosis, tracheitis, allergies, itching, pruritus and swelling.
- In Indo-China, rhizome is grated in vinegar and applied as a poultice for boils and abscesses.
- Decoction of rhizome used for dog and snake bites.
- Leaves mashed in molasses used for throat and tongue soreness and in breast inflammation.
- In northeastern
India fresh root paste with a spoonful of honey used for coughs. (4) In India, leaf extract given with butter milk to treat skin diseases such as scabies and warts. (12) In Manipur, India, fresh leaves or roots are crushed and applied to skin diseases and itch. Vegetative parts are boiled in water and consumed to control high blood pressure. (25)
In Assam, leaf used as antiseptic ; used for snake and insect bites. (27)
- In Chinese medicine, bruised leaves are applied to foul sores, snake and insect bites. Powdered leaves applied to itchy diseases. (11) Use for treating gonorrhea and retention of placenta

Study in Sprague-Dawley rats showed pretreatment with Sagittaria sagittifolia extract can militate cadmium-induced liver damage through decreasing the expression of TNF-a mRNA in the process of acute cadmium exposure. (2) Study showed S. sagittifolia pretreatment was more effective than vitamin E in protecting against cadmium-induced acute liver injury, possibly through enhancement of antioxidant and detoxification liver processes. (1)
Antibacterial Against Oral Pathogens / ent-Rosane Diterpenoids: Study of the whole plant yielded seven new ent-rosane diterpenoids, sagittines A-G with one new labdane diterpene. Compounds 1-4 showed antibacterial activity against oral pathogens Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces naeslundiis. Compound 5 was active only against A. naeslundiis. (5)
C-fos Induction: Study results suggest c-fos induction is independent of oxidative stress or inflammation in the liver during the process of acute Cd exposure in rats. (6)
Terpenoid / Sandaracopimaric Acid / Immunosuppressive: Study of methanol extract isolated a terpenoid, sandaracopimaric acid, showed to have good immunosuppressive action.
• Antioxidant / Polysaccharide Extraction: Study reports on the optimal extraction process for Sagittaria sagittifolia polysaccharide. Under the optimized process, the S. sagittifolia polysaccharides content was 29.32%. In-vitro study for radical scavenging activities showed good antioxidant activity against DPPH, hydroxyl free radicals, and reducing power. (11)
• Antioxidant / Immunological Activity / Polysaccharide: Study reports on the ultrasound-assisted method (UAW) of extraction of S. sagittifolia polysaccharide and evaluated its antioxidant and immunological activities of the purified polysaccharide (SPU60-W). The SPU60-W exhibited excellent hydroxyl and ABTS radical scavenging activity comparable to vitamin C, and moderate DPPH radical scavenging activity. Immunity testing suggested  SPU60-W significantly promoted proliferation, phagocytosis, and NO production of mouse macrophage RAW264.7. Results suggest potential utilization as antioxidant and immunomodulator in food and medicinal industry. (15)
• Comparable Activity of Three Polysaccharides / Immunomodulatory Activity: Study evaluated and compared in vitro biological activities of three polysaccharides (SSW, SSU, and SSP) obtained by hot water, ultrasound-assisted, and subcritical water extraction. The three polysaccharides were heteropolysaccharide with dramatically different monosaccharide species and mole ratios. The SSP exhibited stronger antioxidant activity in vitro and potent immunomodulatory activity than SSW and SSU. Results suggest SSP has potential as biological agent for use in complementary medicine or functional foods. (16)
• Hepatoprotective / INH-Rifampcin Induced Hepatic Injury / SSP Polysaccharide / Root Tubers: Sagittaria sagittifolia polysaccharide (SSP) is a purified form of a homogenous polysaccharide isolated from root tubers of S. sagittifolia, which has been used as protectant against hepatotoxicity induced by co-administration of isoniazid and rifampicin. Study evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of SSP and underlying mechanism in isoniazid-rifampicin induced liver injury in mice. SSP significantly alleviated liver injury, evidenced by decreased activities of ALT, AST, LDH and decreased level of malondialdehyde in the liver, and increased level of glutathione and increased activities of SOD and catalase in the liver. The hepatoprotective mechanism against INH-rifampicin induced liver injury may involve activation of NRF2 and its target antioxidant enzymes and inhibition of the expression of CYPs. (17)
• Effect of Roasting on Functional and Antioxidant Properties of Arrowhead Flour: Study evaluated the effect of pan and microwave roasting on tubers converted to flour and its functional and antioxidant properties. Total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and reducing power enhanced upon pan and microwave roasting from 1.02 to 2.42 mg/g GAE;  44.30% to 46.61%; 74.59% to 76.23% respectively. Water and oil absorption capacities increased in roasted flour, for use in products where improved moisture and oil retention are required. Roasting significantly decreased foaming, emulsification, and viscosity, which increased antioxidant and total phenolic content. (18)
• Antioxidant / Antineoplastic / Immune Activity / Selenium Modified Polysaccharides: A purified polysaccharide fraction of S. sagittifolia (PSSP) was modified with selenium (Se-PSSP) and was evaluated for characteristics, antioxidant, antineoplastic, and immune activities. Compared with PSSP, Se-PSSP showed stronger water-solubility, antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity, and immunomodulatory activity. Results suggest Se-PSSP is a promising Se-supplement with potential as an antioxidant, antineoplastic, and immunomodualtory agent for functional foods and the medicine industry. (19)
• Protective in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease / Polysaccharide: Study evaluated the protective effect of S. sagittifolia polysaccharide (SSP) on NAFLD in mice. Findings suggest SSP exerts preventive protection against high-fat diet-induced NAFLD by interfering with arachidonic acid metabolism via Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway in liver oxidative stress. (20)
• Hepatoprotective Polysaccharide / Heavy Metal-Induced Hepatic Injury: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective role of S. sagittifolia polysaccharide (SSP) in mice and LO2 hepatocytes injured by heavy metal mixture of Cd+Cr)VI)+Pb+Mn+Zn+Cu. Results showed SSP can alleviate hepatic injury, evidenced by significantly decreased activities of AST, ALT, and MDA content, along with increase SOD activity and GSH, T-SH contents. SSP effectively decreased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in LO2 hepatocytes. SSP protects against six heavy-metal-induced hepatic injury in mice and LO2 hepatocytes. Supported by Nrf2 gene slicing, the mechanisms may correlate with activation of Nrf2 pathway to mitigate oxidative stress and apoptosis. (21)
• Mitigation of DDS-Induced Colitis / Modulation of Microbiota and Signaling Pathways / PSSP-1: Study identified a novel S. sagittifolia polysaccharide, PSSP-1, and evaluated its potential in alleviating dextran sulfate sodium (DDS)-induced colitis in a mouse model. PSSP-1 at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kbw significantly reduced disease activity index (DAI) and suppressed expression of inflammatory cytokines in UC mice. It promoted abundance of beneficial gut microbiota, including Lactobacillus and Candidatus_Saccharimonas. Lactobacillus_johnsonii species may play a significant role in modulating colitis. Study suggests PSSP-1 mitigates colitis symptoms by repairing the intestinal barrier, promoting microbial metabolism, and regulating the gut microbiota-MAPK/;NF-kB signaling pathways. (22)
• Qici Sanling / Suppression of Bladder Cancer Growth / Inhibition of Wnt/B-Catenin Pathway: Qici Sanling decoction (QCSL), a traditional Chinese medicine, is a polyherbal mixture of corm of Sagittaria sagittifolia (SS) with nine other herbal medicinal plants at ratio of 10(SS):10:5:5:5:5:3:2:5:5,  which was found in combination with pirarubicin for treatment of postoperative patients with non-muscle invasion bladder cancer to significantly reduce cancer recurrence rate, enhance systemic immunity, and alleviate side effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. (23)
• Antioxidant Health Drink: Study evaluated the development of an antioxidant health drink that can also regulated blood sugar. Raw materials consisted of Sagittaria sagiittifolia, hawthorn and liquorice. Results showed that 0.4% crude polysaccharide powder of S. sagittifolia, 10 cc of hawthorn extract, 2.5 cc of liquorice extract, 7.0% white sugar, 0.5% citric acid, 0.2% cyclodextrine, o.05 g/L sodium alginate, 0.5 g/L xanthan gum amount, 2.0 g/L agar and 20MPa homogenization produced a beverage of delicate sweet taste, rich nutrition, and stability. (24)
• Effect on Immune Function of Macrophages via mTOR Signal Pathway: Study showed Sagittaria sagittifolia polysaccharide could enhance the phagocytosis of macrophages through mTOR signal pathway. (26)


Updated December 2023 / June 2018 / January 2013

IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration: Sagittaria sagittifolia L. / Carl Axel Magnus Lindman (1856-1928) / Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Flower Close-up / File:Sagittaria sagittifolia (2005 08 08).jpg / Utrecht, Netherland (August 8, 2005) / Click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Sagittaria sagittifolia / Algirdas / CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported / Click on image or link to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Leaves of Sagittaria sagittifolia / Christian Fischer / CC BY-SA 3.0 / Click on image or link to go to source page / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
The Protective Effect of Sagittaria Sagittifolia Against Cadmium-mediated Acute Liver Damage / Lu Zu-fu, Huang Fang et al / Journal of Fujian Medical University / 2001-02
Effect of Sagittaria Sagittifolia on Expression of TNF-α mRNA in Process of Cadmium-Induced Acute Liver Damage / November 10, 2002
Sagittariol: A new diterpene from Sagittaria sagittifolia / Shekhar Chandra Sharma, J S Tandon and M M Dhar / Phytochemistry, Vol14, Issue 4, April 1975, Pages 1055-1057 / https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(75)85185-5
Aquatic / semi-aquatic plants used in herbal remedies in the wetlands of Manipur, Northeastern India / Alka Jain, S Roshnibala et al / Indian Journ of Traditional Knowledge, Vol 6(2), April 2007, pp 346-351
ent-Rosane and Labdane Diterpenoids from Sagittaria sagittifolia and Their Antibacterial Activity against Three Oral Pathogens / Xue-ting Liu, Qin Pan, Yao Shi et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2006, 69 (2), pp 255–260 /
DOI: 10.1021/np050479e
Hepatic c-fos Expression Is Independent of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Induced by Acute Cadmium Exposure in Rats / Xiaonan Wu. Zufu Lu et al / Ann Nutr Metab 2007;51:258-263 / DOI: 10.1159/000105446)
Sagittaria trifolia var. L. var. sinensis Sims / Chinese name / Catalogue of Life, China
Chemical constituents of Sagittaria sagittifolia L. / J L Yuan, RS Jiang, YW Lin, WP Din /Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1993 Feb ;18(2):100-1 / PMID: 8323689 
Sorting Sagittaria names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher, / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
Sagittaria sagittifolia L. / Synonyms / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Study on Extraction of Polysaccharides and Antioxidant Activity of Sagittaria sagittifolia L. Polysaccharide / Lilan Ou, Pixian Shui, Ye Zhu, Chun Zhang / Agricultural Science & Technology, April 2017; Vool 18, Issue 4: pp 724-732
Use of aquatic and marshy plants in ethno-veterinary practices by tribals and rural people of Jammu province, (J&K), India / SYEEDA MAHMUD AND NAZAK HUSSAIN SHAH / International Journal of Plant Sciences, July-December 2009; Vol 4, Issue 2: pp 471-474
Pest Risk Assessment for Sagittaria sagittifolia L: Chinese arrowhead
/ Polly Lehtonen, Botanist / U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Phytochemical Screening of Tubers and Leaf extracts of Sagittaria sagittifolia L.: Newsa (Arrowhead)
/ Anita Rao and V. N. Pandey / International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, September 2017; 7(9) / ISSN: 2250-3153
Purification, characterization, antioxidant and immunological activity of polysaccharide from Sagittaria sagittifolia L. / Jinyan Gu, Haihui Zhang, Chaoting Wen, Jixian Zhang, Yuanqing He, Haile Ma, Yuqing Duan / Food Research International, 2020; Voluume 136: 109345 / DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109345
Comparison of characterization, antioxidant and immunological activities of three polysaccharides from Sagittaria sagittifolia L. / Jinyan Gu, Haihui Zhang, Hui Yao, Jie Zhou, Yuqing Duan, Haile Ma /  Carbohydrate Polymers, 2020; Vol 235: 115939 / DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.115939
Sagittaria sagittifolia polysaccharide protects against isoniazid- and rifampicin-induced hepatic injury via activation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 signaling in mice / Jiing Wang, Weizao Luo, Bing Li,  Yan Liao et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2018; Volume 227: pp 237-245 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2018.09.002
Effect of roasting on physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties of arrowhead (Sagittaria sagittifolia L.) flour / Idrees Ahmed Wani, Adil Gani, Aanisa Tariq, Paras Sharma, Farooq Ahmad Masoodi, Haroon Maqbool Wani / Food Chemistry, 2016; Vol 197, Part A: pp 345-352
Characterization, antioxidant, antineoplastic and immune activities of selenium modified Sagittaria sagittifolia L. polysaccharides / Yuqin Feng, Yujie Qiu, Yuqing Duan, Yuanqing He, Han Xiang, Wenxiang Sun, Haihui Zhang, Haile Ma / Food Research International, 2022; Volume 153: 110913 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110913
Sagittaria sagittifolia polysaccharide interferes with arachidonic acid metabolism in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease mice via Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway / Xinqi Deng, Xiuhui Ke, Yibo Tang, Weizao Luo, Ruijuan Dong, Dongyu Ge, Li Han, Yajie Yang, Hongshuang Liu, Tuerxun Reyila, Yan Liao /  Biomedicina & Pharmacotherapy, 2020; Volume 132: 110806 / DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110806
Sagittaria sagittifolia polysaccharide protects against six-heavy-metal-induced hepatic injury associated with the activation of Nrf2 pathway to regulate oxidative stress and apoptosis / Hong-Shuang Liu, Man-Yu Zhou, Xi Zhang, Ya-Lan Li, Jing-Wei Kong, Yan Liao et al / Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 232: 111810 / DOI: j.jinorgbio.2022.111810
A novel Sagittaria sagittifolia L. polysaccharides mitigate DSS-induced colitis via modulation of gut microbiota and MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathways / Yuqin Feng, Simeng Chen, Yating Song, Shuhan Liu et al / Int J Bio Macromol., 2023; 254(Pt3): 127835 / DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2023.127835
Qici Sanling decoction suppresses bladder cancer growth by inhibiting the Wnt/Β-catenin pathway / Hua Gong, Weihua Chen, Lanhua Mi, Dan Wang, Youkang Zhao, Chao Yu, Aiguang Zhao / Phar Biol., 2019; 57(1): pp 507-513 / PMID: 31401919 / PMCID: PMC6713157 / DOI: 10.1080/13880209.2019.1626449
Production of Sagittaria sagittifolia Beverage and Technological Condition Optimization
/ Lilan OU, Ye Zhu, Xin Yu, Chung Zhang, Pixian Shui / Medicinal Plant, 2017; 8(3): pp 47-50
Study on the Ethnomedicinal System of Manipur / Rajesh Singh Yumnam, CH. Onita Devi, Santosh Kumar Singh Abujam, D. Chetia / International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archives, 2012; 3(3): pp 507-511
Enhancement effect of Sagittaria sagittifolia polysaccharide on immune function of macrophages through mTOR signal pathway / Chen Jie, Wu Xiao-Nan, Yang Xue-Fan et al / Chinese Journal of Public Health, 2016; 32(12): pp 1692-1695
AQUATIC/SEMI-AQUATIC MACROPHYTES USED IN HERBAL REMEDIES FROM THE WETLANDS OF WESTERN ASSAM, NORTH-EAST INDIA / Upen Deka, Tapan Dutta, Sanjay Talukdar / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 2019; 12(8): pp 93-96 / eISSN: 2455-3891 / pISSN: 0974-2441
Sagittaria sagittifolia / Wikipedia

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: scientific name (most helpful), local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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