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Family Euphorbiaceae

Croton tiglium Linn.

Scientific names  Common names
Croton acutus Thunb.  Gasi (Sul.) 
Croton arboreus Shecut  Kamagsa (Bik.)
Croton bimanicus Müll. Arg  Kamaisa (Tag.)
Croton camaza Perr.  Kamandag (Bis.) 
Croton himalaicus D.G. Long  Kamausa (Tag.) 
Croton pavana Buch.-Ham.  Kasla (Sul.) 
Croton tiglium Linn.  Lutung-sira (Bik.) 
Halecus verus Raf.  Makaisa (Tag.) 
Kurkas tiglium (L.) Raf.  Makasla (P. Bis.)
Oxydectes pavana (Buch.-Ham) Kuntze  Malapay (Sul.) 
Oxydectes tiglium (L.) Kuntze  Saligaw (Ilk., Ibn.) 
Tiglium officinale Klotz. Tuba (Ilk., Bik., Tag., S.L. Bis., P. Bis., Sul.) 
  Tuba-tuba (Bik., P.Bis.) 
  Tubang-kamaisa (Tag.) 
  Tubang makaisa (Bik., Tag.) 
  Tubang-pasiti (Bik.) 
  Tubli (C. Bis.) 
  Tukbu (If.) 
  Croton oil plant (Engl.) 
  Purgative croton (Engl.)
  Purging croton (Engl.) 
  True croton (Engl.)
Croton tiglium L. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Jaipal.
BURMESE: Kana kho.
CHINESE: Ba dou, Pa-tou
CZECH: Kroton počistivý.
DANISH: Oliekroton, Kroton, Purgerkroton.
DUTCH: Crotonolie, Purgeerkorrels.
FRENCH: Bois de Moluques, Bois de Pavane, Croton cathartique, Croton médicinal, Tiglium, Vrai croton.
GERMAN: Krotonölbaum, Krotonöl (oil), Purgierkroton, Tiglibaum.
HINDI: Geyapal, Jhamālaghōṭā, Jepal gota.
HUNGARIAN: Hashajtó kroton, Krotoncserje.
ITALIAN: Croton tiglio, Tiglio drastico.
JAPANESE: Hazu, Kuroton.
KANNADA: Berada, Danti, Jaapaalada, Jaapala, Japala beeja, Japalada bija, Nepalada, Nervalada.
KHMER: Bat khlok.
KOREAN: Keuloton
LAOTIAN: Kok mak tong, Mark tot.
MALAY: Bori, Chengkiang, Cheraken, Penchahar (Java), Simalakian (Sumatra).
MALAYALAM: Cadalavanacu, Nalavanakku, Neervalam, Valam.
MARATHI: Arabi erand, Jamalagota, Jempal, Jepal, Jeyapal, Jopaala,Nogli erand.
PERSIAN: Bedanjir e khatai.
POLISH: Kroton przeczyszczający.
PUNJABI: Jaipal.
RUSSIAN: Kroton rvotnyj, Kroton slabitel'nyj.
SANSKRIT: Jayapala, Kanakaphala, Naepala, Titteriphala.
SPANISH: Crotoncillo, Piñón de Indias (seeds).
SWEDISH: Krotonoljeträd.
TAMIL: Chiduram, Naganam, Nakanam, Nakakenti, Neervalam, Nirvalam, Siduram, Valam.
TELUGU: Naepal vaema, Nepala vithalu, Nepalavitua.
THAI: Sà lòt.
URDU: Jamaal gota, Jamal gota taza, Jamalgota muddabir, Maghz jamalgota.
VIETNAMESE: Ba đậu, Cây ba đậu.: Name

Tuba is an erect or more or less spreading shrub or very small tree. Leaves are alternate, ovate 7 to 12 centimeters in length, usually somewhat rounded at the base, pointed at the tip and toothed at the margins.
Flowers are very small, borne on terminal inflorescences, with the female flowers situated toward the base of each inflorescence. Fruits is a capsule, ellipsoid or obscurely 3-angled, 1.5 to 2 centimeters long and contains a single seed. Seeds are ovoid or oblong, 12 to 15 millimeters in length and 3-angled, the testa dark-brown or blackish, thin and brittle and of faint odor; the albumen and the embryo are yellowish. Seeds are at first mild in taste and subsequent acrid and pungent.

- Usually planted, in and about towns, throughout the Philippines
- Naturalized in some places.

- Of prehistoric introduction from Malaya.
- Also occurs in India to New Guinea.

- Roots contain tannin, 65%.
- Seeds have a fixed oil (croton oil), 30-56%, containing croton globulin and croton albumin, arginine, and lysine; alkaloid ricinine (toxic); lipase; invertase, amylase, raffinase; proteolytic enzyme, crotone resin, tiglic acid, croton oleic acid, stearic, palmitic, myristic, lauric, oenanthrallic, capronic valerianic, butyric, isobutyric, acetic and formic acids; tannin, 65%.
Chemical analysis of seeds yielded eight new phorbol esters (three phorbol diesters, 1-3, and five 4-deoxy-4α-phorbol diesters, 4–8), together with 11 known phorbol diesters (nine phorbol diesters, 9–17, and two 4-deoxy-4α-phorbol diesters, 18 and 19). (see study below) (16)
- Leaves yielded two new compounds, badounoids A and B, together with 13 known norsesquiterpenes. (19)
- GC-MS study of ethanolic extract of leaves yielded 41 compounds, with major compounds of glycoside, phenolic, palmitic acid, terpene alcohol, polyenoic fatty acid, phytol ester and phytoesterol. (32)
- Study of seeds isolated seven compounds elucidated as bis(2,3-dihydroxypropyl) nonanedioate (1), 12-O-(α-methyl)butyrylphorbol-13-decanoate (2), 12-O-tiglylphorbol-13-decanoate (3), (9S,10R,11E,13R)-9,10,13-trihydroxyoctadec-11-enoic acid (4), methyl (9S,10R,11E,13R)-9,10,13-trihydroxyoctadec-11-enoate (5), 4(1H)-quinolinone (6), and 5-hydroxy-2-pyridinemethanol (7). (see study below) (36)

- Oil is yellow, orange, or brown, according to age.
- Pungent and burning taste, warming, antipyretic.
- Nauseating odor.
- Toxic in excessive internal use.
- Roots, bark, leaves, and seeds possess drastic purgative properties.
- Croton oil is considered rubefacient and counterirritant.
- Croton oil's property as external vesicant and internal purgative is attributed to the presence of croton oleic acid.
- Differentiation between croton poisoning from ptomaine poisoning: In croton poisoning, pain is felt at the back of the throat, sometime after the poison has been swallowed. Pain is also felt at the anus. Also, croton poisoning is immediately relieved by doses of bismuth, not so with ptomaine poisoning.

Parts utilized
· Roots, seeds, fresh leaves.

· For rheumatic pains of the legs and waist: use 3 to 6 gms of dried material in the form of decoction.
· Pounded fresh leaves may be applied as poultice for snakebites or may be used as insecticide.
· Poultice of leaves applied or rubbed on area of snake and insect bites.
· For sprains and bone pains: Oiled leaves or bark material are heated and applied to painful areas.
· Croton seed oil has been used as purgative.
· Seed oil used for treatment of schistosomiasis and other intestinal parasites.
· Roots, bark, seeds, and leaves considered a drastic purgative.
· Bruised root applied to carbuncles and cancerous sores.
· Testa used for fluxes.
· In Annam, bark used as a tonic.
· In Java and Kelantan, roots are finely shredded, mixed with water, and drunk by women as abortifacient.
· Diluted tincture of croton seeds used as a stimulant and applied in certain cutaneous affections, like eczema, ichthyosis and erythema.
· Seeds, while half-roasting over a lamp or candle flame, is inhaled through the nostril to relieve asthma.
· Croton oil is rubbed on the skin as rubefacient and counterirritant.
· Internally, croton oil us used as a powerful hydragogue, cathartic, and purgative. In excessive doses, it can cause severe purging, collapse and death.
· Liniment used as stimulant and applied to chronic rheumatism, neuralgia, glandular and other indolent swellings, chronic bronchitis and other pulmonary affections.
· Croton oil is used in dropsy, obstinate constipation, intestinal obstructions, and lead poisoning; as a preliminary laxative in leprosy; and as a revulsive in apoplexy. A few drops at the base of the tongue produces catharsis.
· As a blister, applied to the scalp in acute cerebral diseases, to the cord in spinal meningitis, to the chest in chronic bronchitis, and to the throat in laryngitis. Used in lock-jaw and mania.
· In Ayurveda, considered purgative; known as Kumbhini, used in the treatment of constipation after Sodhana (detoxification process) of seeds with Godugdha (cow's milk).
- In Unani medicine, Croton tiglium seeds and Zingiber officinalis rhizome extract has been used in equal ratio as a paste formulation for the treatment of Safa (alopecia areata).
· Fish and Arrow Poison: Plant is universally used as fish poison. Pounded ripe fruit is used in Java and by the Dayaks of Borneo to poison fish. In the Philippines, fruit or crushed leaves are similarly used. The leaves are one of the constituents of the Batak arrow poison. The Arbor arrow poison of the northeast frontier Assam is a paste believed to be made from pounding soft plant parts. When seeds are used, they are pulverized, put in sacks, and placed in ponds or rivers.(•) C. tiglium is widely used in fish poisoning by the tribal people of Arunachal Pradesh, India. (32)
Croton-Phenol Peel
· Minute quantities of croton oil with phenol as solvent, diluted in water and saponified has been used as a peeling agent.
The mechanism of interaction between oil and skin continues is yet to be fully explained. (8)

Purgative / Laxative:
A study of the ethanol extracts of three Chinese medicinal plants —Croton tiglium (Badou) , Rheum palmatum (Dahuang) and Cannabis sativa (Huomaren)— known for their laxative properties, showed an effect on the rat intestinal epithelial cells providing evidence for the pharmacologic mechanism on the intestinal tract. (1)
Laxative: An Indonesian study on an ethanol extract of seed showed laxative properties.
Purgative / Laxative: Study of a 50%^ EtOH extract of dried nuts showed a dose-dependent cathartic effect in albino rats. Results suggest a purgative effect probably through a increase in gut motility via muscarinic receptor activation.
Tumor-Enhancing / Seeds: A 1965 study isolated 2 active co-carcinogenic agents from the seed of CT. Both were potent cocarcinogens at very low dosage. Phorbol myristate acetate, a semisynthetic compound from the croton resin, showed promoting activity.
Tumor-Enhancing Principles:Study of active fractions of croton resin showed a high incidence of malignancy and low incidence of tumor regression. Alone, croton resin gives rise to a very few tumors; croton oil elicits low incidence of malignancy. In contrast, croton oil elicits a low incidence of malignancy, a markedly higher incidence of tumor regressions, and applied alone is notably tumorigenic. (3)
Gastrointestinal Motility Modulation / Oil: Study showed Croton tiglium oil might modulate gastrointestinal motility and induce intestinal inflammation related to immunological milieu and motor activity. Results highlight its folkloric use in gastrointestinal disorders.
Anti-HIV Phorbol Ester / Seeds: A methanol extract of seeds of Croton tiglium yielded five phorbol diesters, together with three known ones. Study evaluated the compounds ability to inhibit an HIV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) on MT-4 cells and to activate protein kinase C (PKC) associated with tumor-promoting action. 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was found to be not only the most potent inhibitor of HIV-1-induced CPE (IC100 value of 0.48 ng/ml), but also the most potent activator of PKC (100% activation at 10 ng/ml). (5)
EBV-Inducing: TPA, a tumor-promoting agent, 12-0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate, was isolated from the seeds and stalk of Croton tiglium. Study has shown it to be a potent EBV-inducer in vitro while also decreasing EBV-specific cellular immunity and enhancing EBV-induced transformation.
EBV-Inducing / Combined Extracts:Combined usage of oily extracts from C tiglium, E lathyris and E tirucalli exerted a marked induction of EBVirus-associated early (EA) and viral capsid (VCA) antigens in genome-carrying human lymphoblastoid cell lines with implications in EBV-associated diseases. (7)
Antifungal / Antibacterial: Study isolated a novel antimicrobial protein from the seed of Croton tiglium. The protein was found to possess a strong and broad spectrum antimicrobial activity.
Insecticidal / Anti-Termite / Croton Oil: A home study of Croton oil from leaves mixed with ethyl alcohol showed anti-termite effects and suggests a non-toxic environment-friendly alternative to termite control. (11)
Antinociceptive / Smooth Muscle Relaxant: Study in mice evaluated the seed of C. tiglium (SCT) for antinociceptive activity with a dose-dependent effect in a writhing test, although weak when compared to aspirin. Study on spontaneous smooth muscle contractions of isolated rabbit jejunum showed the C. tiglium possessed spasmogenic and spasmolytic properties. (13)
Toxicity and Detoxification of Seeds / Sodhana: Toxicity of C. tiglium seeds may be due to the presence of phorbol esters and crotonic acid along with other constituents. The toxic components may be removed by cow milk during process of Sodhaba, a purification process that decreases the toxicity of C. tiglium seeds. (15)
Cytotoxic Phorbol Esters / Hepatic Tumor Cell Line: Chemical analysis of seeds yielded eight new phorbol esters, together with 11 known phorbol diesters. Cytotoxicity was evaluated against the SNU387 hepatic tumor cell line, and compound 3 showed the most potent activity.   (16)
Combined Paste Formulation of C. tiglium and Z. officinalis for Alopecia Areata:
- In Unani medicine, Croton tiglium seeds and Zingiber officinalis rhizome extract has been used in equal ratio as a paste formulation for the treatment of Safa (alopecia areata). This case study reports on a patient with Safa treated with the Unani herbal drug formulation and significant regrowth of hair was noted. (see folkloric use section above) (17)
Insecticide: Out of ten plants screened for efficacy as eco-friendly insecticide, Leea sambucina and Croton tiglium were the most effective. (20)
• Anti-Dermatophytic: Dermatophytosis is caused mainly by genera of Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum. Study evaluated the antidermatophytic activity of stems, leaves, and seeds of Croton tiglium against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. Oleic acid and hexadecanoic acid were the major components of the stem extract that demonstrated strong anti-dermatophytic activities. The ethanolic extract of stem or seed exhibited strong antidermatophytic activities and can be considered for antifungal application after appropriate processing. (21)
• Apoptosis in Human Lung Cancer A549 Cells Via Bax/Bcl-2 Pathways: Study investigated the effect of Croton tiglium extract on cellular proliferation and apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cell line (A549) in vitro. Results showed inhibition of A549 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner and promotion of apoptosis through Bac/Bcl-2 pathways. (22)
• Toxic Proteins / Pro-Inflammatory Effect: Study determined the toxic targets of proteins from C. tiglium and investigated the potential mechanism of their toxicity. Oral medication of croton proteins caused significant gastrointestinal damage with edema and diarrhea. Toxic reactions of the crude protein were associated with inflammation. In vivo, the crude protein caused release of inflammatory mediator PGE2 in mice by intraperitoneal injection. In vitro, pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-a and IL-1ß were produced in macrophages in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In clinical applications, effective components of C. tiglium frequently coexist with toxic ingredients, including croton oil and protein, that may cause gastrointestinal toxicity, which may have a synergistic effect. (23)
• Antioxidant Efficiency of Seeds Incorporated with Ag Nanoparticles / Increased Cytotoxicity Against Colon Cancer Cells: Study aimed to enhance the efficiency of C. tiglium seed extracts by incorporation with silver nanoparticles through raised cytotoxicity against growth of human colon cancer cells. Seed contained phytoconstituents i.e., carbohydrates (glycosides), flavonoids, sterols (triterpenes), alkaloids, and proteins. Incorporation of AgNPs into the extract caused no toxicity on test animals. Median lethal doses (LD50) of ethanolic, PE, and aqueous seed extracts Ag nanocomposites were 7.95, 5.2, and 65 ml/kg, respectively. Incorporation of AgNPs into different extracts enhanced the antioxidant properties through increasing of total antioxidant capacity, total reducing power, and free radical scavenging activity. Nanoparticulated extracts exhibited elevated cytotoxicity against growth of human colon cancer cells. (24)
• Alternative Biodiesel Source / Extraction and Esterification / Seeds: An alternative for fuel reserve is the use of biodiesel from C. tiglium oil seed feedstock. Study determined the optimum process conditions for producing the highest extract yield and quality biodiesel from seeds. Study reports on maceration time, material/solvent ratio, and extract yield. The oil quality of C. tiglium seed is good for biodiesel material based on value of density, kinematic viscosity, total glycerin, iodine, and saponification. (25)
• Anticonvulsant / Seeds: Study evaluated the anticonvulsant effect of hydroalcoholic seed extract of Croton tiglium in rats and mice in seizures induced by ECM and pentylenetetrazole. Sodium valproate was used as standard. Results showed dose dependent anticonvulsant effect in electrically induced seizures, with only minimal protective effect in PTZ-induced seizures. (26)
• Toxic Effects of Crotocaudin / Molluscicidal / Stem Bark: Crotocaudin extracted from C. tiglium was evaluated for toxicity to freshwater vector snail Lymnaea acuminata and Fasciola gigantica which cause immense harm to man and his domestic animals. Study suggest that the extracted compound crotocaudin may be used as a potent source of molluscicides. Plant products are less expensive, easily available, easily soluble in water, and safer for non-target animals than synthetic molluscicides. (27)
• Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Studies / Seeds: Study evaluated the acute and subchronic toxicity of Tiglium seed extract in rats after oral administration using OECD guidelines. Single oral dose up to 2000 mg/kg of seed extract resulted in no mortality of abnormal clinical signs. In 13-week toxicity study, the extract exhibited no dose-related changes (mortality, body weight, hematology and clinical biomarkers, and histopathology) at dos3 of up to 500 mg/kg. Results suggest the seed extract appears to be safe for human consumption. (28)
• Biochemical and Hematological Effects of Mixing Seeds with Animal Diet: Study evaluated the toxic effects of C. tiglium seeds mixed with animal diet on plasma and blood parameters in male albino rats. Results showed croton seeds administration at doses of 10% and 20% have little effect on some hematological indices, especially those relating to RBCs and WBCs. (29)
• Antitermitic / Seeds: Study evaluated the antitermitic potential of seed extracts of Withania somnifera (Indian ginseng), Croton tiglium (jamalgoota) and Hygrophila auriculata (talimkhana). The seed extracts caused changes in tunneling behavior, number of bacterial colonies in hindgut and activities in midgut of Odontotermes obesus. C. tiglium showed the lowest LT50 (12.85 and 2.65 h) among the three seed extracts at 50% concentration, and 100%, respectively. (30)
• Phorbol Ester-Type Diterpenoids / Weak Cytotoxicity Against Cancer Cell Lines: Study of ethanol extract of twigs and leaves isolated two new phobol esters (1 and 3) and seven known ones (3-9). The compounds were evaluated for cytotoxic activities on human cancer cell line A549. Compounds 3 and 7 showed weak activities. (31)
• Induction of Apoptosis in Human Lung Cancer A549 Cells: Study demonstrated that Croton tiglium extract could inhibit the proliferation of A549 cells by regulating apoptosis in vivo. It has potential to provide biologically active compounds for treating NSCLC and deserves consideration as new plant-derived anticancer agent. (33)
• Treatment of Alopecia Areata / Herbal Preparation of Croton tiglium and Zingiber officinalis: An herbal preparation for local application was prepared as a paste in 1:1 ratio of powdered Jamal gotta (Tiglium tiglium) and Adrak (Zingiber officinalis). The paste was applied on area of alopecia areata, once daily before going to bed, for one month. Regrowth of white hairs was marked on the 10th day of treatment. White hairs gradually turned almost completely black after 45 days. (34)
• Anti-Fertility / Seeds: Study investigated the aiti-fertility and anti-implantation properties of C. tigilum seeds on female albino rats. At 200 mg/kbw daily for a week, ethanol extract of Croton seeds was 100% effective in preventing implantation sites in uterine horn of female animals. The endometrium may be histopathologically affected to decrease contact and adhesion between blastocytes and uterine epithelium. (35)
• Cytotoxicity Against Human Lung Cancer Cell Line / Seed: Study of seeds isolated seven compounds. Compounds 2 and 3 showed cytotoxicity against human lung cancer cell line A5449 with IC50s of 47.8 and 7.0 µmol/L, respectively. (see constituents above) (36)
• Anti-Obesity Effects of Gambi-Hwan: Gambi-hwan in a mixture of herbal drugs: bitjis martensi kirsch (Chinese scorpion) and Croton tiglium (Badou). Study evaluted the anti-obesity effects of Gambi-hwan extract on obese rats induced by high-fat diet through expression of UCP-1 and
PPAR-delta. Results indicated Gambi-hwan extract upregulated the expression of UCP-1 and PPAR-d in adipose tissue, which may contribute to reducing the weight of adipose tissue. (37)
• Brine Shrimp Toxicity Study: Study evaluated 23 Bangladesh medicinal plants used in traditional medicine for brine shrimp lethality toxicity. Of the 23 plants, 80% were toxic to brine shrimp (LC50 < 30 g/ml). Among all extracts, the methanolic extract of Croton tiglium exhibited highest toxicity to brine shrip (LC50=0.0924 g/ml). Vincristine sulfate was used as reference standard. (38)

- Wild-crafted. 
- Croton seeds, fruit, tinctures and oil in the cybermarket.

Updated July 2019 / August 2015

Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: File:Koeh-197.jpg /Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen / 1897/ Public Domain / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Fig. 234. - Croton Tiglium / Croton Tiglium. Croton Oil Plant/ Fig. 235. - Croton Tig-lium: lateral and ventral view and longitudinal section of seed. / Chest Of Books

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Effect of Ethanol Extracts of Three Chinese Medicinal Plants with Laxative Properties on Ion Transport of the Rat Intestinal Epithelia Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. Vol. 27 (2004) , No. 2 162
The Tumor-enhancing Principles of Croton Tiglium L. / Cancer Research 25, 1871-1875, December 1, 1965
The Tumor-enhancing Principles of Croton tiglium L. / II. A Comparative Study / B L Van Duuren et al / Cancer Research, August 1, 1966; 26: pp 1729-1733,
Effects of essential oil from Croton tiglium L. on intestinal transit in mice / Xin Wang et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 17 April 2008; Vol 117, Issue 1: pp 102-107 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2008.01.023
Anti-HIV-1 phorbol esters from the seeds of Croton tiglium / El-Mekkawy, S;Meselhy, M R;Nakamura, N;Hattori, M;Kawahata, T;Otake, T; / Phytochemistry
, 2000
New Developments in Epstein-Barr Virus Research / Constantine S. Umar
Combined effect of the extracts from Croton tiglium, Euphorbia lathyris or Euphorbia tirucalli and n-butyrate on Epstein-Barr virus expression in human lymphoblastoid P3HR-1 and Raji cells / Yohel Ito et al / Cancer Letters • Volume 12, Issue 3, April 1981, Pages 175-180 / doi:10.1016/0304-3835(81)90066-5
The Benefits of the Phenol Peel / John Bradford Fisher, MD / Plastic Surgery Practice - April 2005
Activity-guided isolation of a novel protein from Croton tiglium with antifungal and antibacterial activities
/ Muhammad Shahid, Muhammad Tayyab, Farah Naz et al / DOI: 10.1002/ptr.2544 / DOI: 10.1002/ptr.2544
Ancient Science of Life, Vol 18, 3&4, Jan-April 1999.
Sorting Croton names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
Antinociceptive and Smooth Muscle Relaxant Activity of Croton tiglium L Seed: An In-vitro and In-vivo study / Zhen Liu, Wenyuan Gao, Jingze Zhang and Jing Hu / Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2012, 11(2):611-620
Croton tiglium L. / Synonyms / The Plant List

Detoxification of Croton tiglium L. seeds by Ayurvedic process of Śodhana
/ Prince Kumar Pal, Manmath Kumar Nandi, and Narendra Kumar Singh / Anc Sci Life, 2014 Jan-Mar; 33(3): pp 157–161 /
doi: 10.4103/0257-7941.144619 / PMID: 25538350
Cytotoxic Phorbol Esters of Croton tiglium / Xiao-Long Zhang, Lun Wang, Fu Li, Kai Yu, and Ming-Kui Wang */ J. Nat. Prod., 2013, 76 (5), pp 858–864 / DOI: 10.1021/np300832n
Successful treatment of Alopecia Areata with local application of Zingiber officinalis and Croton tiglium /
Shafia Mushtaq, Fassihuzaman, Shah Alam, M.A Jafri, Asim Ali, Shazia Jilani / International Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2014; Vol: 2, Issue: 1, 29-34
Studies on the proteins from the seeds of Croton tigilium and Jatropha curcas / Fiorenzo Stirpe, Annalisa Pession, E Lorenzoni, P Strocchi, Lucio Montanaro, S Sperti / Biochemical Journal, 05/1976; 156(1):1-6.
Norsesquiterpenoids from the leaves of Croton tiglium / Wei Bu, Yan-Ni Shi, Yong-Ming Yan, Qing Lu, Guang-Ming Liu, Yan Li, Yong-Xian Cheng / Natural Products and Bioprospecting, Dec 2011
Antidermatophytic Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Croton tiglium / Han Chien Lin, Yu-Liang Kuo, Wen-Ju Lee, Hui-Yi Yap, and Shao-Hung Wang / BioMed Research International, Volume 2016, Article ID 3237586 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3237586
Croton Tiglium Extract Induces Apoptosis via Bax/Bcl-2 Pathways in Human Lung Cancer A549 Cells / Changyou Li, Xiao Wu, Rongli Sun, Peng Zhao, Fengjuan Liu, Chunling Zhang / Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, Vol 17 / DOI:10.22034/APJCP.2016.17.11.4893
Toxic proteins from Croton tiglium L. exert a proinflammatory effect by inducing release of proinflammatory cytokines and activating the p38-MAPK signaling pathway / Liping Liu, Hongli Yu, Hao Wu, Xiaolin Yang et al / Molecular Medicine Reports, 2017 July; 16(1): pp 631–638 / doi: 10.3892/mmr.2017.6617 / PMCID: PMC5482117 / PMID: 28560398
Evaluation of Antioxidant Efficiency of Croton tiglium L. Seeds Extracts after Incorporating Silver Nanoparticles / Ahmed Youssef, Wael M Aboulthana, Amal M El-Feky, Amgad Hassan / Egypt. J. Chem., 2019; 62(2): pp 181-200 / DOI: 10.21608/ejchem.2018.4960.1442
Extraction and Transesterification of Croton tiglium Oil Seeds From Central Kalimantan, Indonesia as an Alternative Biodiesel Raw Materials / Saputera , Muliansyah and Titin Apung Atikah  / Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 2014; 7(3): pp 140-149 / DOI: 10.3923/ajaps.2014.140.149
Anticonvulsant Effect of Hydroalcoholic Seed Extract of Croton Tiglium in Rats and Mice / Raghunandan Mudium, Bhanu Prakash Kolasani / Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 2014 Mar; 8(3): pp 24-26 / DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2014/7022.4095
Toxic Effects of Crotocaudin Extracted from the Medicinal Plant Croton tiglium
/ Ram P. Yadav and Ajay Singh / Z. Naturforsch., 2010; 65 c: pp 327-336
Assessment of acute, 14-day, and 13-week repeated oral dose toxicity of Tiglium seed extract in rats
/ , ,  and BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2018; 18:251 / https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-018-2315-5
Biochemical and Haematological Assessment of Croton tiglium Seeds Mixed with Animal Diet in Male Albino Rats / H. H. El-Kamali, A. M. E. Omran and M. A. Abdalla / Annual Research & Review in Biology, 2015; 8(4): pp 1-7, 2015, Article no.ARRB.19801
Effect of seed extracts of Withania somnifera, Croton tiglium and Hygrophila auriculata on behavior and physiology of Odontotermes obesus (Isoptera, Termitidae) / Sohail Ahmed, Mohammad Asam Riaz, Amjad Hameed Malik, Mohammad Shahid / Biologia, Dec 2007; 62:770
Phorbol ester-type diterpenoids from the twigs and leaves of Croton tiglium / Lin Jiang, Yu-Bo Zhang, Si-Qo Jiang, Yi-Duo Zhou, Ding Luo, Qian-Wen Niu / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, 2017; 19(12) / https://doi.org/10.1080/10286020.2017.1307836
The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine Analysis of Croton tiglium L. leaves: A fish poisoning plant / Temin Payum / The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine
PUB149 Croton Tiglium Extract Induces the Apoptosis in Human Lung Cancer A549 Cells
/ Changyou Li, Xiao Wu, Rongli Sun, Peng Zhao. Fengjuan Liu, Chunling Zhang / Journal of Thoracic Oncology, Jan 2017; 12(1), Supplement / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2016.11.2120
Successful treatment of Alopecia Areata with  local application of Zingiber  officinalis  and Croton tiglium 
/ Shafia Mushtaq, Fassihuzaman, Shah Alam, M.A Jafri, Asim Ali, Shazia Jilani / International Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2014; Vol 2, Issue 1: pp 29-34
Studies on Toxicity and Anti – fertility of Cardiospermum halicacabum and Croton tiglium Seeds on Albino Rats / Omran, Awatif Mohammed Elhassan; Supervisor,- Mohammed Abdelraheem A/Alla;Co-supervisor,- Hatil Hashim Elkamali / Thesis / SUST Repository / http://repository.sustech.edu/handle/123456789/2112
Study on chemical constituents of seeds of Croton tiglium and their cytotoxicities / Su H G, Yang H, Meng C W, Peng C, Guo L, Dai O / China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica, 01 Oct 2016, 41(19): pp 3620- 3623 / DOI: 10.4268/cjcmm20161920 
The Anti-obesity Effects of Gambi-hwan Extract on Obese Rats Induced by High-fat Diet through the Expression of UCP-1 and PPAR-δ / Beom-Joon Lee, Jae-Hwan Ryu, Jae-Wan Kim, Jong-Hun Park, Jae-Woo Park / Korean Journal of Oriental Medicine, 2007; Vol 28, No 4: pp 136-147
Brine Shrimp Toxicity Study of Different Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants / Mohammed Rahmatullah, Sk. Md. Imrul Sadeak, Sitesh C. Bachar, Md. Tozammal Hossain, Abdullah-al-Mamun, Montaha, Nowshin Jahan, Majeedul H. Chowdhury, Rownak Jahan, Dilruba Nasrin, Mahbubur Rahman, Shahnaz Rahman / Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 2010; 4(2): pp 163-173

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