Tubang-bakod is a smooth, glamorous, erect, branched shrub 2 to 5 meters high. Branches
are stout, cylindric, and green. Leaves are entire, orbicular-ovate, angular or somewhat
3- to 5-lobed, 10 to 18 centimeters long, culminate with a chordate base.
Petioles are long. Flowers are greenish or greenish-white, bisexual, 7 to
8 millimeters in diameter, borne on axillary chymes, the staminate ones villus inside, the petals
reflexed. Stamens are10, the filaments of the inner 5, connote.
Fruits are capsules, at first fleshy, becoming dry, rounded,
with 2 to 3 one-seeded divisions, 3 to 4 centimeters long.
- Very common in and about towns,
in thickets and hedges along roadsides throughout the Philippines. The name derives from
its cultivation and use as a hedge or fence (baked).
- Introduced at an early date in colonial history from Mexico.
- Now pan tropic.
• Seed has a toxic principle, albuminous Curcio, belonging
to the same group as croon and ricing. Comparatively, Curcio causes
less gastrointestinal irritation. 8 drops of this oil has been reported
to cause severe vomiting, followed by diarrhea.
contains a considerable amount of chlorophyll, reducing sugars or reducing substances, poisoning, a small amount of tannin, resin, and a trace of volatile oil. Bark also yields a wax which is a mixture of Melisse alcohol and its Messianic acid ester.
• Latex contains alkaloids: atropine, atrophy and curtain
with its anti-cancerous properties.
• Leaves yield alkaloids, flavoring, onionskins, tannins, phenolic compounds, steroids, steroids.
• Leaves contain Iphigenia, invite, nonexistent, etc used for malaria,
rheumatic and muscular pains.
• Physic-nut oil consists of glyceride of palmist, polemic,
and Olenolin acids.
• Seed contains a yellow fixed oil,
29-40 %, known as Hell oil, Pinhole oil, Oleum infernale, and
Oleum ricini majoris; the activity is greater than castor oil
and less that of croton oil. It consists of the glyceride of a characteristic acid, in the same group as ricinoleic and crotonoleic acid, but not identical with either, with an activity greater than castor oil and less than croton oil.
• Lipid composition of J. curcas seed oil yielded unsaponifiable lipids 3.8%, stereo esters 4.8%, triglycerols 88.2%, free fatty acids (FTA) 3.4%, diacylglycerols 2.5%, sterols 2.2%, monoacylglycerols 1.7%, polar lipids 2.0%. Fatty acid composition of seed oil yielded palmitic acid 11.3%, stearic acid 17.0%, oleic acid 12.8%, linoleic acid 47.3%, arachidic acid 4.7%, arachidoleic acid 1.8%, behenic acid 0.6%, (C24:O) 44%. (33)
• Study of roots yielded 13 compounds viz., 5α-stigmastane-3, 6-dione (1), nobiletin (2), β-sitosterol (3), taraxerol (4), 2S-tetracosanoic acid glyceride-1(5),5-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxycoumarin (6), jatropholone A (7), jatropholone B (8), 6-methoxy-7-hydroxycoumarin (9), caniojane (10), 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (11), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (12) and daucosterol (13) (Ling-yi K et al, 2015. Chemical Constituents from Roots of J. curcas. The Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences Acta Botanica Sinica Volume 38 Issue 2.) (33)
• Study of various root extracts yielded polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, saponins, terpenoids, steroids, triterpenoid saponins, polyacetylated compounds, carotenoids, phlobatannins, tannins, oxalates, phytates, cyanates, VOCs. (35)
• Proximate analysis of leaf (L), stem bark (SB) and root (R) of J. curcas (%) yielded moisture 11.90 L, 5.77 SB, 9.77 R, crude fat (12.30, 16.70, 6.80), crude protein 26.00, 4.70, 5.66, total carbohydrate 36.33, 12.23, 15.00, total reducing sugar 5.87, 0.52, 1.27, ash content 14.10, 11.83, 7.93, crude fiber 17.67, 50.53, 43.33, and energy value (kJ/100g) 1514.77, 907.00 and 602.93, respectively. (35)
• Mineral composition of leaf (L), stem bark (SB) and root (R) (mg/100g, dry mass basis %) yielded Fe 70.33, 61.33, 62.00, Ca 65.00 56.67, 50.00, Na 47.00, 24.67, 31.33, Mg 127.30, 43.00, 80.67, K 1.95, 0.67, 0.40, Al 11.40, 4.04, 3.00, Zn 50.67, 14.33, 26.67, P 4.47, 0.70, 1.33, Se 0.46, 0.30, 0.20, respectively. (35)
• Phytochemical screening of defatted seeds detected alkaloids (7.3%), flavonoids (0.39%), and soluble phenolics (mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract).
• Methanol extract of leaves yielded alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, proteins, tannins, reducing sugars, fats and oils. (see study below) (56)
- Bitter-tart tasting, cooling
natured, antipyretic, antispasmodic, anti-vomiting, haemostatic,
- Toxic; observe caution with internal use.
- Roots are emetic and purgative.
- Oil of the seed is a drastic purgative.
- Studies have shown anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, wound healing, antioxidant, pesticidal, antimicrobial, anticoagulant, anti-viral, hepatoprotective, smooth muscle relaxant properties.
· Fresh leaves.
· In the Philippines, oil of seeds used as a drastic purgative.
· Decoction of roots used a cure for diarrhea.
· External applications for bleeding, ulceration of wound,
· Dosage: Use fresh leaves, 2 to 3 blades, remove petiole, pound
and extract juice, decoct in water.
· Seeds: 1-4 seeds is mildly purgative; an overdose causes drastic
· Decoction of leaves or roots used for diarrhea.
· Bark, slightly pounded, placed in the mouth as cure for snake bites; also applied to bites of various animals.
· The leaf decoction is also used as a cough remedy and as galactagogue.
· Poultice of bark used for sprains and dislocations. Sap is
used for toothaches.
· Leaves are applied to wounds and pruritic lesions.
· A vigorous massaging of the oil onto the abdomen is believed
to be abortifacient..
· Decoction of young leaves taken for fevers.
· Infusion of leaves, hot or cold, mixed with lime juice, used
as lotion for fevers.
· Twigs used for cleaning teeth.
· Used for scabies, eczema, and ringworm.
· Juice used for toothaches and strengthening the gums.
· Preparation from root-bark applied to sores.
· Emulsion of sap with benzyl benzoate used for scabies, eczema and dermatitis.
· Roots used as antidote for snake bites.
· In other countries, the seed is used as anthelmintic or abortive;
the leaves as insecticidal.
· Roots used as antidote against snake venom; root extract used
for bleeding gums.
· White latex used as mouth disinfectant; used externally for
· Fresh, viscid juice from the stem used to arrest bleeding or hemorrhage from wounds, ulcers, cuts, and abrasions; used to promote healing by coagulating blood and forming an air-tight film when dry, similar to that produced by collodion.
· In South Africa,
traditionally used by the Tswana as laxative.
· In Gambia,
leaves used to make mouthwash.
· In the Gold Coast,
leaves used as ingredient in enema preparations.
· In Southern Nigeria,
used as remedy for jaundice, applied by rectal injection. Leaves used for wound healing. Stem bark used for treatment of threatened abortion.
· In Malaya used as rubefacient. Malays use the latex as vulnerary.
· In the Cape Verde Islands, used to stimulate secretion of milk.
· In Cambodia, applied to sores and ulcers; the leaves considered insecticidal; the seeds considered abortifacient.
· In Brazil,
used as anthelmintic.
· In Goa, root-bark applied externally for rheumatism. Fresh stems are used as toothbrushes, to strengthen the gums and cure bleeding, spongy gums, or gum boils.
· In Madagascar and Guiana as an anti-diarrhetic; latex is applied to decayed teeth and wounds, and used as styptic; the roots given as emetic and purgative.
· In India, applied as cataplasm to the breasts and as lactagogue. Also, used as styptic.
· In Peru, traditionally
used for external wound healing and gastric ulcers.
- Curcas Oil / Illuminant / Lubricant: Used
as illuminant and lubricant. Belongs to a class of semidrying oils and used in the manufacture of soaps and candles.
- Repellent: In India, seed oil is burned to repel imosuitoes and other insects.
- One of the Philippine plants (Tubang bakod, Malunggay,
Bani) that has been considered as an alternative biodiesel source.
Jatropha is easy to grow with minimum care, maturing in two years. However,
unlike malunggay which is gaining preferable status over tubang-bakod
(kasla), Jatropha is left with poisonous waste after oil extraction,
while all parts of the Malunggay plant are used.
Toxicity / Poisoning
• Reports of 31 cases acute
poisoning in South Africa involving children from accidental ingestion
of seeds. Presenting manifestations were nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, burning sensation in the throat. Miosis is also a presenting sign. (21) (34)
• The poisonous property of J. curcas is mainly due to the presence of toxalbumin called curcin, ricin, and cyanic acid, related to ricinoleic acid. Although all parts are poisonous, the seeds have the highest concentration of ricin. (34)
• There is no specific antidote. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive. Treatment options are induction of emesis, gastric lavage with activated charcoal and a cathartic to hasten elimination, together with monitoring and observation for CNS depression and need for assisted ventilation. (34)
• Five cases of poisoning: Study reports of 5 cases of seed poisoning in a family (father, mother, and three sons) presenting with vomiting and diarrhea within a few minutes. The illness was self-limiting with no in-hospital complications. Study suggested ingestion of only one or two seeds can cause toxic symptoms of short duration. The high concentration of phorphoesters in the seed was identified as the main toxic constituent. (43)
• Clinical Profile of Poisoning in Children: In a 10-year retrospective study of 169 cases of poisoning in children, acute Jatropha poisoning was the commonest cause constituting 31% of cases. Most common symptom was vomiting, followed by abdominal pain, weakness, dehydration, diarrhea. Hypovolemic shock was documented in 6 children. Treatment consisted of IV fluids, IV antiemetics and ORS. Most children who ingest JC seeds develop mild gastrointestinal symptoms, but life threatening hypovolemic shock can occur. (52)
• Abortifacient / Fruit:
Study has shown a fertility regulatory effect of fruit of J curcas for
pregnant rats. The pregnancy interruption occurred soon after implantation,
with marked toxicity with extracts given for 10 days. (2)
• Anti-inflammatory / Roots:
Study confirmed the anti-inflammatory activity of topical JC root powder
in paste form in TPA-induced ear inflammation in mice. The anti-inflammatory
activity could be due to several mediators and involve the cyclo-oxygenase
/ prostaglandin pathway. (4) In a study of various extracts of J. curcas, a hexane partition from root extract showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity. It also showed high cytotoxicity towards RAW 264.7 cells at 1 mg/ml. Findings suggest hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecanoic acid could be responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of the root extract. (29)
Study with J curcas, A diffusa and P galioides showed significant wound-healing
• Disinfectant / Antiparastic / Antimalarial
Study of the sap and leaves of J curcas showed the sap exerted germicidal actions on the S aureus, Bacillus and Micrococcus species. Also showed an inhibitory effect on larval growth of mosquito. Study suggest JC could provide a very cheap and readily available disinfectant and malaria vector control agent. (6)
• Acute Toxicity Studies / Seeds:
Accidental ingestion in children caused a clinical syndrome of restlessness, vomiting and dehydration. A study in mice showed toxic effects manifested as macroscopic anal hemorrhage and death, with post-mortem findings of widespread hemorrhages of the colon and lungs, and and infarction of the liver. Extract of dried seed administered intraperitoneally in mice caused death in doses as low as 1 mg/kg. Larger intraperitoneal doses (>30 mg/kg) were rapidly lethal but no associated with gross gastrointestinal hemorrhages. (7)
• Coagulant / Anticoagulant Activities:
Study showed the whole latex significantly reduced the clotting time of human blood. Diluted, however, it prolonged the clotting time; at high dilutions, it did not clot at all. Results suggest JC possesses both procoagulant and anticoagulant activities. (9)
• Mutagenicity Study:
Study on five increasing amounts of latex of J curcas showed not mutagenicity activity. (10)
• Phorbol Esters / Toxins:
Phorbol esters are the main toxins in J. curcas seed and oil. In a toxicity study in mice, LD50 indicates purified phorbol esters isolated from the oil are highly toxic to mice and produce severe pathological symptoms. Phorbol esters are present in leaves, stems, flowers and roots and therefore the consumption of J. curcas in any form, oil, seeds, seed cake, or extracts is toxic to animals. In ruminants, force-feeding studies using decorticated seeds caused acute toxicity with dose-dependent 100% mortality. (13)
• Antimicrobial / Phytochemical Screening:
Ethanol, methanol and water extracts of stem bark of JC were investigated for antimicrobial activity. All the extracts exhibited antimicrobial activities and appreciable activity against all fungal species tested. Phytochemical screening yielded saponin, steroids, tannin, glycosides, alkaloids and flavonoids. (14)
• Antioxidant / Polyphenolic Content:
Study showed a correlation between the amount of phenolic compounds and percentage inhibition of DPPH radicals scavenging activity of the extract. Results suggest a good potential as a source of pharmaceutical based products. (15)
• Anti-Termite / Toxicity, Effect on Tunneling and Feeding Behavior / Oil:
Oil of the physic nut, J. curcas, was evaluated for its barrier and repellent activity against Philippine milk termite Coptotermes vastator. Results showed JC oil had anti-feeding effect, induced reduction in tunneling activity and increased mortality of C. vastator. Toxicity and repellent thresholds were higher than those reported for other naturally occurring compounds tested against the Formosan subterranean termite. (16)
• As Coagulant in Waste Water Treatment:
Coagulants are widely used in conventional water and wastewater treatment. Residual coagulant in treated wastewater has been associated with chronic diseases. Alternative environmentally friendly biodegradable coagulants could alleviate these problem. Study evaluated J. curcas seed and presscake to reduce wastewater turbidity after coagulation. Jatropha seed showed to be an effective coagulant with more than 90% turbidity removal. Results suggest JC seed and presscake as a potential coagulant agent. (18)
• Seed Meal As Protein Supplement to Livestock: Studies have shown that J. curcas seed meal had 58-64% crude protein, with levels of essential amino acids (except lysine) higher than FAO reference protein. Both toxic and non-toxic varieties can be good protein sources for livestock. The seed meal from Jatropha varieties must be detoxified. Heat treatment and a combination of heat and NaOH and NaOCl treatments or extraction with aqueous ethanol or methanol hold promise for detoxification of the toxic varieties for use as Jatropha meals. (19)
• As Premiere Biofuel: Book presents biotechnological methodologies for in vitro propagation and plant breeding for sustainable production of biodiesel. Book also goes beyond the pro-contra debate on biofuels to search for possible sustainable trajectories. (20)
• Oil / Fatty Acid Composition: Fatty acid composition of Jatropha curcas oil from Nigeria and India showed the linoleic acid to be significantly higher than oleic, palmitic, and stearic acid. Results showed the oils have properties for good and quality shelf life, for domestic use if properly and adequately detoxified. (22)
• Anti-Influenza / Inhibition of Viral Hemagglutination Activity: Study evaluated aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts for cytotoxicity and potential to inhibit hemagglutinin protein of influenza virus. Study yielded major phytochemicals including flavonoids, saponins, and tannins. Results suggest the leaf extracts inhibit hemagglutination activity of influenza virus and demonstrates an anti-influenza effect via a mechanism that interferes with virus-cell attachment. (24)
• Potential Anti-HIV Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-viral activity of J. curcas leaf extracts against HIV isolates potentially resistant to AZT/3TC/d4T. The plant extracts showed effective antiviral activity in HIV p24 antigen inhibition assays. Results showed effective anti-viral and probably entry inhibition against potentially drug-resistant HIV. (25)
• Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated various extracts of leaves for antibacterial properties. Phytochemical screening yielded saponins, steroids, alkaloids, phenolic groups and flavonoids. Various extracts showed varied degrees of zone inhibition against tested bacterial pathogens viz., E. coli, S. aureus, Proteus sp. and P. aeruginosa. Chloroform extracts showed the broadest spectrum of antibacterial activity and maximum zone of inhibition against E. coli and S. aureus. (26)
• Safety Evaluation of Formulation of Leaf Extract Ointment for Wound Healing: Study of leaf extract ointment formulation for wound healing in albino rats showed no harmful or adverse effects. Safety findings can be extrapolated to humans. (27)
• Smooth Muscle Relaxant / Triterpenes: Study of methanolic extracts of stem bark significantly abolished (p<0.0001) the spontaneous contraction of the uterus and reduced acetylcholine induced uterine contractions at a dose of 50 mg/ml. The tocolytic effects suggest the presence of active principle/s which can explain the ethnomedicinal use of stem bark to treat spontaneous abortion. Phytochemical screening yielded glycosides, tannins, saponins, and alkaloids. (28)
• Medicinal Soap / Antimicrobial: Study reports on the preparation of a soap using Jatropha oil. According to BIS norms, the soap can be categorized as Grade III soap and used for general bathing purposes. Study of antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus revealed that Jatropha Soap has more bactericidal effect than commercial antiseptic soap suggesting Jatropha oil can be utilized for production of high quality medicated soap. (30)
• Bio-Pesticidal / Anti-Termite / Anti-Cockroach / Biodye / Seed Oil: Study evaluated the biopesticidal potential of J. curcas seed oil against termites (Odontotermes obesus) and cockroach (Blattela germanica). Results showed 10% Jatropha oil caused 100% mortality in 48 hrs and 72 hrs and LD50 of 0.64% and 1.24% for termite and cockroach, respectively. Biodye synthesized by sulfonation resulted in a red biodye formation. (31)
• Hepatoprotective / Pesticidal / Biodye / Seed Oil: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of ethanol leaf extract on chloroform induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. The LD50 of the ethanol extract in mice was found to be more than 1900 mg/kg and less than 2600 mg/kbw. Results showed a significant reduction (p<0.05) in levels of elevated enzyme markers (ALT, AST, and ALP). (32)
• Reactive Extraction for Biodiesel Production / Seed: Study reports om a single step in situ extraction, esterification, and transesterification-collectively called reactive extraction-of J. curcas seed to biodiesel. The process parameters included reaction temperature, methanol to seed ration, catalyst loading, and reaction time. (36)
• Antimicrobial / Antioxidant / Phytotoxic / Defatted Seeds: A crude methanolic extract of defatted seeds exhibited antimicrobial, antioxidant, and phytotoxic activities. These activities were attributed to the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols in defatted seeds. The active ingredients effective against pathogenic microbes suggest a potential for the formulation of drugs for treatment of various diseases. (37)
• Cytotoxic Compounds in Dedifferentiated Cells: Study determined the presence of cytotoxic compounds in both whole plants and dedifferentiated cells, and evaluated the effect of auxin, cytokinins, and light on callus induction in cotyledon explants. Profile of compounds extracted from dedifferentiated cells was similar to that of whole plant, including a relatively abundant stilbene-like compound. Study contributes to the establishment of protocols to produce anti-cancer compounds from J. curcas cultivated in vitro. (38)
• Formulation of Mouthwash from Latex: Study formulated a non-toxic mouthwash lotion from extraction of J. curcas latex. (39)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Latex Cream Formulation / Skin Wound Model: Study evaluated the potential of J. curcas latex cream formulation on CD68 immune expression (macrophages) during inflammatory phase wound healing process in mice skin. Results showed anti-inflammatory activity. The latex cream from 10% and 15% latex exhibited moderated immune reaction to CV68 on wound healing. (40)
Toothpaste Formulation from Latex / Antimicrobial Potential: Study formulated herbal toothpastes from edible medicinal plants Syzygium aromaticum, Dennettia tripetala, and Jatropha curcas latex and tested its antimicrobial activity against some oral pathogenic microorganisms using agar well diffusion. The formulated toothpastes exhibited potent antimicrobial property against tested pathogens, Study suggested extraction of biomolecules for the production of safe and effective herbal-based toothpaste. (41)
• Medicinal Soap from Jatropha Oil / Antimicrobial: Soap was prepared using Jatropha Oil adding concentrate caustic soda solution. Study of antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus showed the Jatropha soap has higher bactericidal effect compared to commercial antiseptic soap. Study suggests Jatropha oil can be used for the production of high quality medicated soap. (42)
• Anthelmintic / Curcin / Seed: Study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of curcin from J. curcas seed using adult Pheretima posthuma, Niclosamide was used as standard. Acute toxicity test showed toxic signs at 300 mg/kg. Pheretima posthuma displayed physical changes with LD50 of 800 mg/kbw. Results suggest a potential source of anthelmintic drugs. However, toxicity of curcin is high, and caution is advised on its use especially at high doses. (44)
• Insecticidal / Spodoptera litura / Leaves: Study evaluated crude methanol extracts of J. curcas (leaf, bark, seed, seed coat, and root) for insecticidal activity against third instar larvae of Spodoptera litura. The leaf extract was most effective and showed highest mortality (60%) at 5% concentration, followed by seed (20%), seed coat (20%) and root (20%). (45)
• Inhibition of Steel Corrosion / Oil: Study evaluated the effects of natural J. curcas oil on the corrosion of steel in 1M HCl by measures of weight loss, electrochemical and EIS polarisation. Results showed J. curcas oil reduced the rate of corrosion and obeys the Frumkin adsorption isotherm model. (46)
• Wound Healing / Seed Oil and Microcurrent Application: Study evaluated the effects of J. curcas seed oil and microcurrent stimulation on healing of wounds experimentally induced in Wistar rats. The application of JC seed oil alone was not effective on experimental wound healing, but microcurrent application alone or in combination with the oil exerted significant differences in the parameters studied. (47)
• Antiangiogenic / Latex: Study evaluated the antiangiogenic potential of J. curcas latex in chick chorioallantoic membrane model. The latex showed low thermal stability, and consisted of phenols, tannins, and flavonoids, but little or no rubber. The latex demonstrated significant antiangiogenic activity on a chick chorioallantoic membrane model. The combination of antimutagenic, cytotoxic, antioxidant and antiangiogenic properties makes J. curcas latex a potential target for the development of new drugs. (48)
• Acute and Chronic Toxicity Studies / Leaves: Study evaluated J. curcas decoction and ethanol leaf extract for acute and chronic toxicity effects in rats with doses of 200, 500 and 1000 mg/kbw. Results showed not acute toxicity with no mortality. However, it was lethal to rats when taken for longer period of time, marked by behavioral changes, weight loss, anorexia, decreased mobility, and restlessness. Study suggests J. curcas is relatively safe when administered orally for acute use but not safe when used chronically. (49)
• Antifungal / Seeds: Study evaluated the antifungal potential of aqueous and methanol extracts of J. curcas roots, leaves, and seeds on some pathogenic fungi, i.e., Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. verrucosum, Tichosporon beigelii, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Seed extracts inhibited all the test fungi except for A. fumigatus. Root and leaf extracts had no inhibitory effect. (50)
• Insecticidal / Aphicidal / Root, Leaf and Stem Bark / Seed Oil: Study evaluated the antifeedant and repellent effects of root, leaf, and stem bark extracts against 3 insect orders: Hemiptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera, and focused on different insect species viz., grain aphid Sitobion avenae, black bean aphid Aphis fabae, Diamondback moth Plutella xylostella, the cabbage root fly Delia radicum, and the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera. The extracts exhibited a wide spectrum of aphicidal activities. The Phorbol esters fraction and seed oil exhibited a high killing effect on aphids by topical and spray application. (51)
• Use of Curcas Oil in a Water Distribution System / Case Study: Study evaluated J. curcas as an affordable, sustainable source of oil to fuel a water system to meet drinking, sanitation and irrigation requirements in a rural community in Senegal, West Africa. It was found that the combination of using recycled greywater for irrigation and a mechanical press to maximize oil recovered from seeds of mature J. curcas tress, can operate the water system without the use of diesel. (53)
• Biomass Waster and Utilization: Jatropha curcas is cultivated for oil utilization as fuel feedstock which is achieved with biomass waste after oil extraction. Biomass waste consists of leaves and stems from pruning, fruit hull, seed husk, and oily-cake. Study reports on the utilization of waste in order to achieve zero waste and the utilization of waste as fertilizers, briquettes, adsorbent, resin, and bioactive compost. It can also be used as feedstock for production of polymer composite, combustion for gasifier, biogas, liquid oil and dye. (54)
• Environmental Impact Of Jatropha Biodiesel in India: India actively promotes cultivation of Jatropha curcas, a biodiesel feedstock identified as suitable for achieving Indian target of 20% biofuel blending by 2017. Study showed the use of J. curcas as biodiesel generally reduces global warming potential and the nonrenewable energy demand compared to fossil diesel. However, the environmental impacts on acidification, ecotoxicity, entrophication, and water depletion all showed increases. The key for achieving environmental sustainability is to increase resource efficiency of cultivation systems. (55)
• Wound Healing / Leaves: Study evaluated the wound healing properties of methanol extract of J. curcas leaves in incision and excision wound models in rats. Results showed significant (p<0.05) dose dependent increase in wound contraction rate, skin breaking strength and decrease in epithelization, along with histopathological studies showing prolferation of epithelial tissue, angiogenesis and fibrosis. The healing action was due to increased collagen deposition, better alignment and maturation. (see constituents above) (56)