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Family Malvaceae
Ualisualisan
Sida acuta Burm. f.

BROOM WEED
Huang hua ren

Scientific names  Common names
Sida acuta Burm. f. Attai-na-baka (Ibn.) 
Sida carpinifolia Linn. f. Basbasot (Ilk.) 
Sida lanceolata Retz. Escobang-haba (Tag.) 
Sida frutescens Cav. Eskuba (C. Bis.)
  Eskubilla (Tag., Bis.)
  Herbara (Ilk.)
  Higot-balato (Tag., Pamp., Bis.)
  Mamalis (Tag., Pamp.)
  Pamalis (Tag., Bis.)
  Silhigon (Bis.)
  Sinaguri-lañgan (Sul.)
  Surisighid (Bik.)
  Saliki (C. Bis.)
  Takling-baka (Pang.)
  Taking-baka (Tag.)
  Takkimbaka (Ilk.)
  Ualisualisan (Tag.)
  Uaualisan (Tag.)
  Escoba larga (Span.)
  Broomweed (Engl.)
  Common wireweed (Engl.)
  Spiny head sida (Engl.)
  Wire weed (Engl.)
Escoba / Escobilla / Eskuba/ Eskoba are common names confusingly shared by several Philippine medicinal plants: Sida acuta, Sida retusa (ualis), Scoparia dulcis (mala-anis), Sida rhombofolia (ualis-haba).
Ualis / ualisualisan / ualis-haba are also confusingly share root-words: Sida acuta, Sida retusa, Sida rhombofolia.

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Huang hua ren.
FRENCH: Balai midi, Balai onze heures, Balai savane, Balyé wonzè (Saint Lucia), Grosse herbe dure, Herbe à panier, Herbe dure.
JAPANESE: Hosoba kingojika.
LAOTIAN: Khat mon noi .
MALAGASY: Tsindahorona.
PORTUGUESE: Guaxuma, Relógio-De-Vaqueiro, Tupitixa, Vassoura-Preta, Vassourinha
RUSSIAN: Sida ostraia.
SPANISH: Babosilla , Escoba blanca, Escobilla, Huinar, Malva colorado, Malva de castilla.
THAI: No-khue-mae, Ya khat bai yao, Ya khat mon, Ya kho, Yung pat.

Botany
Ualisualisan is an erect, branched, slightly hairy or neary smooth, half-woody shrub growing to a height of a meter or less. Leaves are lanceolate, 3 to 5 centimeters long, with toothed margins, pointed tip and blunt or rounded base. Flowers are yellow, about 1.3 centimeters in diameter, borne singly at the axils of the leaves. Fruit is a capsule about 3.5 millimeters long, with two projections and consists of 4 to 9 carpels enclosed by the calyx.

Distribution
- Weed found in open places throughout the Philippines.
- Pantropic.

Constituents
- Roots contain asparagin.
- Leaves contain saponin.

- Saponifiable fraction of fixed oil of seeds yielded oleic, linoleic, palmitic, stearic, myristic and palmitoleic acids. The unsaponifiable fraction yielded ß-amyrin, ß-sitosterol, and an unknown waxy nonsteroidal substance. (15)

Properties
- Plant considered abortifacient, anthelmintic, and antiemetic.
- Leaves considered demulcent, diuretic, anthelmintic, vulnerary.
- Roots considered a bitter tonic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, antirheumatic, demulcent, diaphoretic, stomachic and vulnerary.

Parts utilized
Leaves.

Uses
Folkloric
- Poultices made from boiled leaves are applied to ulcers and sores.
- Decoction of roots and leaves are emollient; taken internally for hemorrhoids, fever, impotency and as a tonic.
- Decoction also used as demulcent; for gonorrhea and rheumatism.
- Roots use as stomachic and antipyretic.

- Decoction or infusion used for fevers, dyspepsia and debility.
- An infusion with ginger added is given in intermittent fevers and chronic bowel complaints, a teacupful twice a day.
- Root juice, sugared or mixed with honey, used to expel worms.
- Juice of leaves, mixed with honey, given for dysentery and chest pains.
- Fresh juice of roots applied to wounds and ulcers to promote healing.
- In Nicaragua, whole plant used for asthma, colds, fever, worms, and renal inflammations. In India, used for fever, bronchitis, ulcers, diarrhea, skin diseases; paste of leaves mixed with coconut oil used for dandruff and hair strengthening. In Nigeria, used for malaria, ulcer, fever, breast cancer, poisoning, inducing abortion. In Sri Lanka, roots and leaves used for hemorrhoids, fever, impotency, gonorrhea, and rheumatism. (13)
- In the Yucatan, decoction of roots used for vomiting of blood; decoction of leaves used for fever.
- In India, seeds are given for enlarged glands and for inflammatory swellings.
- In Togo, West Africa, leaves used for eczema, kidney stones, headache.
- In Indian traditional medicine, used for treating liver disorders, urinary disease and disorders of the blood and bile.
- In the Ivory Coast, used for malaria.
Others
• Fiber from the bark is yellow, delicate, filamentous, soft, very lustrous and silky in appearance, of medium strength. In the Ilocos it is used to make a superior-quality rope, of pleasing color and gloss.
• Stems are used for making brooms and baskets.

Studies
Antimalarial: (1) In a study for antimalarial activities of traditional medicinal plants, screening showed Sida acuta has a significant activity. Effect was attributed to its alkaloid contents. (1)
Anti-Viral / Anti-HSV: Sida acuta was on of five plants extracts found to have selective activity against HSV. (2)
Hepatoprotective: Phytochemical testing confimed the presence of phenolic compound, ferulic acid in the roots. Results show significant hepatoprotective effects and provides a rationale for its traditional use in liver disorders. (3)
Antibacterial / Alkaloids: Study yielded indoloquinoline alkaloids which showed good antimicrobial activity against the test microorganisms. Further analysis led to isolated of cryptolepine and quindoline. (4)Antiplasmodial / Cyptolepine: Study led to the identification of cyptolepine as the active antiplasmodial constituent of the plant. (5)
Antimicrobial: Study of the antimicrobial activity of the crude extract of the aerial parts of Sida acuta showed activity against standard strains and isolates of S aureus, B subtilis and Strep faecalis. (6)
Anti-ferlity / Contraceptive: Study yielded alkaloids, steroids, flavones, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds. The ethanolic extract had the most potent antiimplantation activity. The petroleum ether extract possessed estrogenic activity. The adverse effects on fertility were reversible on withdrawal of the extract treatment. (7)
Anti-Neoplastic: A study on a bioassay based on the induction of quinone reductase yielded ten active compounds along with five inactive compounds. Of the compounds, cryptolepinone, N-trans-feruloyltyramine and 5,10-dimethylquindolin-11-one exhibited inhibition of chemically induced preneoplastic lesions. (8)
Anti-Ulcer: Results showed S acuta extract possessed antisecretory and cytoprotective mechanisms and can be a potential source for ulcer treatment. The antiulcer activity has been attributed to alkaloids and flavanoids (9).
Antibacterial / Antifungal / Phytochemicals: Study of chloroform and ethanol extracts yielded carbohydrates, alkaloids, phytosterols, saponins and fixed oils. Antimicrobial screening with S aureus, B subtilis, E Coli, P aeruginosa, C albicans and A niger. There was appreciable antibacterial activity against all the selected bacteria, with maximum activity against S aureus and E coli. (10)
Antioxidants / Tocopherols / Triterpenoids: Study of the whole plant yielded a new tocopherol derivative, 7a-methoxy-a-tocopherol, and a new taraxastane triterpene, taraxast- 1,20(30)-dien-3-one, together with four known compounds, b-tocopherol, a-tocopherol, a-tocospiro B and taraxasterone. Three compounds showed significant antioxidant effect in the DPPH radical scavenging assay. (11)
Negative Effects of High Doses on Cerebral Cortex: Study evaluated the effect of an ethanolic leaf extract of Sida acuta on the histologic features of the cerebral cortex on rats. Results suggest high doses of the extract may affect cerebral cortex functions, indicated by hypoplasia and hypertrophy of cells in the cortical, intermediate, and sub-ventricular layers. (14)
Antibacterial / Staphylococcus Aureus / HIV/AIDS Patients: Study evaluated the effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves of Sida acuta against 45 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from the nasal cavity of HIV/AIDS patients. Results showed S. acuta has appreciable activity against S. aureus, and suggests a potential for use in the treatment of opportunistic infections caused by S. aureus in the HIV/AIDS setting. (16)
Antibacterial Flavonoids: Study investigated the antimicrobial activity of free and bound flavonoids of Sida acuta. The flavonoid extracts showed only antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria, with S. aureus being the most susceptible. The extract was inactive against tested fungi. (17)
Renal Electrolyte Effects: Study evaluated the effect of an ethanolic extract of leaf on kidney electrolytes of adult Wistar rats. Serum chemistry revealed significantly elevated sodium and decreased potassium levels in animals at doses of 200 mg/kbw. Results suggest the leaf extract could have adverse effects on kidney electrolytes of adult Wistar rats at the experimental doses and duration. (18)
Removal of Fluoride from Drinking Water: Excessive fluroride can be lethal, and may cause dental and skeletal fluorosis. Study showed Sida acuta leaves extract can reduce the fluoride content of water. (19)

Availability
Wildcrafted.
Cultivated.

Last Update October 2013

IMAGE SOURCE: Photo / File:Sida acuta (Jangli-methi) in Hyderabad, AP W IMG 0084.jpg / broom grass, broom weed, clock plant, Paddy's lucerne, southern sida or spiny-head sida Sida acuta in Hyderabad, India. / J M Garg / 20 Sept 2008 / GNU Free Documentation License / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: File:Sida acuta (Jangli-methi) in Hyderabad, AP W2 IMG 0084.jpg / J M Garg / 20.9.08 / GNU Free Documentation License / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / File:Sida acuta Blanco2.366-original.png / Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Public Domain Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Antimalarial activity of Sida acuta Burm. f. (Malvaceae) and Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. (Fabaceae) / Damintoti Karou et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 89, Issues 2-3, December 2003, Pages 291-294 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2003.09.010
(2)
INVESTIGATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS OF TOGO FOR ANTIVIRAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES / K Ananil et al / Pharmaceutical Biology • 2000, Vol. 38. No. 1, pp. 40-45
(3)
Hepatoprotective studies on Sida acuta Burm. f. / Sreedevi C D et al / Revue / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • 2009, vol. 124, no2, pp. 171-175
(4)
Antibacterial activity of alkaloids from Sida acuta / Damintoti Karou et al / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 5 (2), pp. 195-200, 16 January 2006
(5)
Studies on medicinal plants of Ivory Coast: investigation of Sida acuta for in vitro antiplasmodial activities and identification of an active constituent / Banzouzi J T et al / International Journal of Phytotherapy & Phytopharmacology
(6)
Antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of the aerial parts of sida acuta burm.f. (malvaceae) / I E Oboh et al / Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, December 2007; 6 (4): 809-813
(7)
PHYTOCHEMICAL AND CONTRACEPTIVE PROPERTY OF SIDA ACUTA BURM FI. IIN. IN ALBIO RATS / Ramesh Londonkar Sharangouda J. Patil et al / Int.J. PharmTech Res.2009,1(4)
(8)
Compounds Obtained from Sida acuta with the Potential to Induce Quinone Reductase and to Inhibit 7,12-Dimethylbenz-[a]anthracene-Induced Preneoplastic Lesions in a Mouse Mammary Organ Culture Model / Dae Sil Jang, Eun Jung Park et al / Arch Pharm Res Vol 26, No 8, 585-590, 2003
(9)
Antiulcer Activity of Sida acuta Burm / P Malairajan, Geetha Gopalakrishnan et al / Natural Product Sciences 12(3): 150-152(2006)
(10)

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF Sida acuta Burm.
/ Akilandeswari .S, R.Senthamarai, Prema.S and R.Valarmathi / International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research (IJPSR), Vol.1(5), 2010, 248-250
(11)
Tocopherols and Triterpenoids from Sida acuta / Chiy-Rong Chen, Li-Hui Chao et al / Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society, 2007, 54, 41-45 41
(12)
Sorting Sida names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(13)
Review: Sida acuta Burm. f.: a medicinal plant with numerous potencies / Simplice Damintoti Karou*, Wendyam MC Nadembega, Denise P Ilboudo, Djeneba Ouermi, Messanvi Gbeassor, Comlan De Souza and Jacques Simpore / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 6 (25), pp. 2953-2959, 28 December, 2007
(14)
Histological Study of the Effect of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Sida Acuta on the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Wistar Rats / M .A Eluwa, P. S Ofem, O. R Asuquo*, A. O. Akpantah, T. B. Ekanem / IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences, Volume 8, Issue 5 (Jul.- Aug. 2013), PP 60-63
(15)
Studies on fixed oil of seeds ofSida acuta burm / R. E. Rao, V. K. Dixit, K. C. Varma / Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, May 1973, Volume 50, Issue 5, pp 168-169
(16)
Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Extracts of Sida acuta Against Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Patients /
I.R. Iroha , E.S. Amadi , A.C. Nwuzo and F.N. Afiukwa / Research Journal of Pharmacology Volume 3 Issue 2,
2009, pp 22-25.
(17)
Extraction and pharmacological evaluation of flavonoids of sida acuta Burm. f. / Alka Jindal, Padma Kumar, Geeta Singh / Int J Green Pharm 2012;6:208-11
(18)
The Electrolyte Effect of Sida acute Leaf Extract on the Kidney Electrolyte of Adult Wistar Rats
/ Kebe Obeten, Victoria Isaac, Eze Ije / Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, Vol 3, No 10, 2013.
(19)
Removal of fluoride from drinking water with the help of Sida acuta Burm f. / H. B.Trivedi and S. D.Vediya / Int. J. of Pharm. & Life Sci. (IJPLS), Vol. 4, Issue 8: Aug: 2013,


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