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Family Fabaceae / Leguminosae
U'pang
Parkia speciosa Hassk.
STINK BEAN
Chou dou

Scientific names Common names
Parkia speciosa Hassk. U'pang (Tag.)
Parkia brunonis R. Grah. ex Wall. Bitter bean (Engl.)
Parkia harbesonii Elmer Nitta bean (Engl.)
Parkia macrocarpa Miq. Petai bean (Engl.)
Parkia roxburghii G. Don (Mansf). Stink bean (Engl.)
Parkia speciosa hort. ex Hassk. Twisted cluster bean (Engl.)
Inga pyriforis Jungh.  
   


Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Chou dou.
DUTCH: Stinkboon.
INDIA: Yongchak.
INDONESIA: Petai papan, Pete, Sindutan, Kundai, Patak.
JAPANESE: Nejire fusa mame no ki.
MALAYSIA: Nyiring, Patag, Patai, Petah, Petai.
THAILAND: Nitta, Sator, Sator dan, Saor kow, To dan, To khao.

Botany
Upang is an evergreen growing 15 to 40 meters high. Branchlets are pubescent. Leaves are alternate, bipinnate on stalks 2 to 6 centimeter long. Pinnae are 10 to 19 pairs, 5 - 9 centimeters long each with 31-38 pairs of opposite, linear pinnules, 5 - 9 millimeters long and about 2 millimeters wide. Flowers are numerous, small, creamy white to brownish yellow, in densely crowded pear-shaped, pendulous inflorescence heads. Flowers yield a nectar, with a strong and sickly smell. The apical flowers develop fruits. Pods are large, 35-55 centimeters long and 3-5 centimeters wide.

Distribution
- Commonly found in the Philippines.
- Indigenous to Southeast Asia.
- Also found in Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand.

Constituents
- Extracts from pods and seeds have yielded high content of total polyphenols, phytosterols, and flavonoids.
- Nutritional analysis of seeds yielded (per 100 g edible portion) ash 1.2-4.6 g, protein 6.0-27.5 g, fat 1.6-13.3g, carbohydrate 13.2-52.9 g, crude fiber 1.7-2.0 g, energy 91.0-441.5 kcal, calcium 108.0-265.1 mg, iron 2.2-2.7 mg, phosphorus 115.0 mg, potassium 341.0 mg, magnesium 29.0 mg, manganese 42.0 ppm, copper 36.7 ppm,
zinc 8.2 ppm, vitamin C 19.3 mg, α-tocopherol 4.15 mg, thiamin 0.28 mg. (3)
- Analysis of extracted samples of seeds for seeds yielded 77 compounds. Propanoic acid, 3,3'-thiobis-didodecyl ester was present in highest percentage. Other main compounds were linoleic acid chloride, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, myristic acid, arachidonic acid, undecanoic acid and 2-hexyl-1-decanol. (11)

Properties
- Studies have suggest antioxidant, antiangiogenic, gastroprotective, antibacterial, hypoglycemic effects.

Parts used
Seeds

Uses

Culinary
- Part of sprouts and thickened inflorescence stalks, young leaves, young fruit pods and seeds are eaten raw, or roasted and cooked as vegetable. Popularly eaten in Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and India. Seeds with its pungent garlic odor is used as condiment for cooking and used in native Indian and Thai dishes and delicacies.
Folkloric
- No reported medicinal use in the Philippines.
- In folk medicine, used for diabetes, hypertension, and kidney problems
- Seeds used to treat diabetes, kidney pain, and cholera.
- In Malaysia, aboriginal tribes use raw bean pod and seeds orally for diabetes; root decoction used for hypertension and diabetes. (8)



Studies
Antiangiogenic / Antioxidant:
Study evaluated the antiangiogenic effect of eight extracts of P. speciosa empty pods. Extracts showed a high content of total phenols and demonstrated a strong antioxidant effect in DPPH scavenging testing. It showed antiangiogenic activity with significant inhibition of microvessel outgrowth from rat aortic tissue implants by more than 50%, possibly through decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in endothelial cells. (4)
Antibacterial / Peel: Study evaluated the antibacterial effect of the various peel extract to Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli. Results showed the ethyl acetate extract to have the highest antibacterial activity. (5)
Anti-Ulcer / Gastroprotective: Study evaluated the gastroprotective effects of Parkia speciosa against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa in Sprague Dawley rats. Results showed gastroprotective effects in extract treated rats with upregulation of heat-shock protein 70 and downregulation of pro-apoptotic protein BAX, with significant increases in antioxidant defense enzymes glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). No symptoms of toxicity or death were observed during the acute toxicity tests. (6)
Hypoglycemic: Study showed chloroform extracts produced a significant depression of blood glucose levels in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The occurrence of ß-sitosterol, stigmasterol and stimast-4-en-3-one were reported for the first time, and may have a potential for new hypoglycemic agents. (7) An aqueous seed extract of Parkia speciosa was investigated for hypoglycemic effects on normal rats. Results showed significant blood glucose reducing effect. (12)
Effect on Liver Drug Metabolism: Parkia speciosa was found to significantly increase liver drug metabolism in-vitro and in-vivo. (9) (10)
Activated Carbon from Pods: Activated carbon with relatively high surface areas were prepared from Parkia speciosa pods with chemical activation. The yield of AC decreased as carbonization temperature increased. (13)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

June 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: / Pods / Photo / Parkia speciosa Hassk. / © Photo from Health Zone / Parkia speciosa Nutrition / click on image to go to source page / Health Zone
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Seeds / Parkia speciosa Hassk. - parkia PASP15 /Tracey Slotta @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Photograph / Ahmad Fuad Morad Parkia speciosa Hassk. / Jeniang, Kedah, Malaysia. click on image to go to source page / Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)/ flickr

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Parkia speciosa-Botany and Common names / Dr. T. K. Lim / Edible Medicinal And Non-Medicinal Plants, 2012, pp 798-803.
(2)
Parkia speciosa Hassk.: A Potential Phytomedicine / Yusof Kamisah, Faizah Othman, Hj Mohd Saad Qodriyah, and Kamsiah Jaarin / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2013 (2013) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/709028
(3)
Nutritional value of Parkia speciosa Hassk. seeds / hindawi.com/ journals/ecam
(4)
Evaluation of antiangiogenic and antoxidant properties of Parkia speciosa Hassk extracts. / Aisha AF1, Abu-Salah KM, Alrokayan SA, Ismail Z, Abdulmajid AM. / Pak J Pharm Sci. 2012 Jan;25(1):7-14.
(5)
Antibacterial activity of Parkia speciosa Hassk. peel to Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria
/
Hasim, D. N. Faridah and D. A. Kurniawati / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2015, 7(4):239-243
(6)
In Vivo Antioxidant and Antiulcer Activity of Parkia speciosa Ethanolic Leaf Extract against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Ulcer in Rats. / Al Batran R, Al-Bayaty F, Jamil Al-Obaidi MM, Abdualkader AM, Hadi HA, Ali HM, et al / PLoS ONE 8(5):2013 / e64751 / doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064751
(7)
THE HYPOGLYCAEMIC AND CHEMICAL STUDIES OF PARKIA SPECIOSA, Hassk / FATHAIYA ETE JAMALUDIN / Thesis / July 1991
(8)
Ethno-medicinal Resources Used By the Temuan in Ulu Kuang Village / M. A. Azliza, H. C. Ong, S. Vikineswary, A. Noorlidah and N.W. Haron / Ethno Med, 6(1): 17-22 (2012)
(9)
Influence of Petai (Parkia speciosa, Hassk) on drug metabolism in rat liver / . Hussin AH, Ariff AM, Husin M, Taher Y. / J Biosci 1999; 10:7-10.
(10)
Adverse Effects Of Herbs And Drug-Herbal Interactions / Abas Hj Hussin / Malaysian Journal of Pharmacy 2001; 1(2):39-44
(11)
EXTRACTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF COMPOUNDS FROM Parkia Speciosa SEEDS BY SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE / C.Y. MOHDAZIZI, Z. SALMAN, N.A.NIK NORULAIN, A.K. MOHDOMAR / Journal ofChemical andNatural Resources Engineering, Special Edition:153-163
(12)
The hypoglycemic effect of aqueous seed extract of Parkia speciosa on rats / Beng-Jin Chee, Hamdan Noor / Journal of Tropical Medicinal Plants 01/2008; 9(1):39-42.
(13)
Preparation of Activated Carbon from Parkia Speciosa Pod by Chemical Activation / P.Y.L Foo, L.Y. Lee / Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2010 Vol II WCECS 2010, October 20-22, 2010, San Francisco, USA

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.
Potential Herbal Medicines and Drug Interactions

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