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Family Pontederiaceae
Water hyacinth
Eichornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laub
COMMON WATER HYACINTH

Scientific names Common names
Eichhornia crassicaulis Schltdl. River raft (Engl.)
Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laub Water hyacinth (Engl.)
Eichhornia speciosa Kunth  
Heteranthera formosa Miq.  
Piaropus crassipes (Mart.) Raf.  
Piaropus mesomelas Raf.  
Pontederia crassicaulis Schltdl., orth. var.  
Piaropus crassipes Mart.  
Piaropus elongata Balf.  
Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms is an accepted name. Kew / Catalogue of Life

Other vernacular names
AFRIKAANS: Waterhiasint.
ASSAMESE: Meteka.
BENGALI: Kochuri pana.
BRAZIL: Aguapes.
CZECH: Tokozelka nadmuta, Vodni hyacint.
DUTCH: Wasserhyazinthen.
FINNISH: Vesihyasintti.
FRENCH: Jacinthe d'eau, Glaieul d'eau.
GERMAN: Topische wasserpest, Wasserhyazinthe.
INDIA: Karisalanganni.
JAPANESE: Hotel aoi.
MALAY: Keladi bunting, Kemeling telur.
NETHERLAND: Waterhyacint.
SLOVAK: Eichornia hrubostopkata.
SWEDISH: Vattenhyacint.
TAMIL: Akasa thamarai.
TELUGU: Pisachi thamara.

Gen Info
Genus is named in honor of J. A. F. Eichorn, a Prussian minister.

Botany
Eichhornia crassipes is a floating and clump-forming aquatic herb with long roots and runners. Leaves form a rosette, shiny, obovate to almost rounded, with the petiole inflated like a bladder. Flowers are borne on long spikes, each spike with numerous stalkless, hyacinth-like flowers. Flowers are large, with six showy sepals, pale lilac, up to 4 centimeters long. Top sepal has a central yellow diamond shaped area surrounded by a blue border. Fruit is an ovoid capsule.

Distribution
- A weed in rivers, ponds, and lakes in the Philippines.
- Occasionally planted in ponds or aquaria as an ornamental.
- Native to Brazil.
- Now almost pantropic.
- Considered as one of the world's most noxious and invasive aquatic weeds.

Constituents
- Fresh plant yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, sterols, terpenoids, anthroquinones, and protein. (See study below) (3)
- Chloroform extract yielded anthocyanins, phenolics, proteins and carbohydrates; an ethanol extract yielded metabolites such as flavonoids, anthroquinones, phenolics and carbohyrdates. (see study below) (13)
- Fractionated extracts yielded the presence of phenols, protein, alkaloids, amino acids, carbohydrate, flavonoids, glycosides, tannins, and terpenoids. (see study below) (16)
- Nutritive analysis of samples from different places showed no significant variation. Study (g/100 g DM) yielded dry matter (8.7-9.8), crude protein (10.1-11.2), crude fiber (26.1-27.4), ash (12.3-12.4), and metabolizable energy (1999.7-2054.1 Kcal/kg). (27)

Properties
- Considered styptic.
- Studies suggest antibacterial, antifungal, hepatoprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, phytoremediative, larvicidal properties.

Parts used
Shoots, leaves, juice.

Uses

Edibility
- Young leaves and leafstalks are edible.
- In Java, green parts, inflorescences and flowers spikes are cooked and eaten. (15)
Folkloric
- No recorded folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- In Chhattisgarh, used as styptic. Fresh juice of weed used to treat fresh wounds to stop the spread of infection. With vinegar, used for treatment of septic wounds. In folklore medicine, used to relieve swelling, burning, hemorrhage, and goiter. (2)
- In Tamil Nadu, India, flower oil applied daily treatment of skin diseases. (26)
- In Assam, India, flowers and roots used for stomach ache; roots used in the treatment of pneumonia. (30)
- In Bangladesh, roots and flowers used in the treatment of hepatic disorders and pandu (abdominal swelling on one side). Crushed roots taken with honey for hepatic disorders. Flowers are cooked and eaten as vegetable for pandu. (34)
- In Nigeria, plant used for skin care. (35)

Others
- Veterinary: Used a tonic for skin of horses, for irritation and inflammation.
(2)
- Biomass: An excellent source of biomass. Polluted hyacinths can be converted to natural gas methane, albeit, at present, a costly process. Also, has potential use as fertilizer and as wastewater treatment. (15) It can be used as compost, paper, fuel. In East Africa, used in making furniture, hand bags, and ropes.
- Fodder: Nutritive analysis suggests E. crassipes has potential as feed for livestock during scarcity periods. (see constituent above) (27)

Studies
Acute Toxicity Study:
Study evaluated the acute oral toxicity of various plant extracts in Swiss mice. The highest dose administered, 2000 mg/kbw, did not produce mortality of changes in general behavior of the test animals. Results indicate safety of EA, aqueous extract and methanol fractionate of aqueous extract. (1)
Anti-Inflammatory / Shoots and Leaves: Study evaluated various solvent extracts of EC for anti-inflammatory activity on formaldehyde induced paw edema in male Swiss albino mice. Results showed all tested extracts of leaves and shoot portion possess anti-inflammatory activity. (2)
Phytochemicals / Antimicrobial: Study of extracts and fractionates of fresh Eichhornia crassipes showed significant and remarkable activity against two bacteria (Micrococcus luteus and Rhodospirillum rubrum) and two fungi (Monoscus ruber and Aspergillus fumigatus. Phytochemical screening of fresh plant yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, sterols, terpenoids, anthroquinones, and protein. (3) Study of solvent extracts was tested against Staphylococcus albus and fungal strains Mucor sp. An acetone extract showed better activity against the microbes. (see constituents above) (13)
Antifungal and Anti-Algal: Study of crude methanolic extract and its fractions showed inhibition of Candida albicans. Some anti-algal activity was seen against green microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and Dictyochloropsis spendida, as well as cyanobacteria, Spirulina platensis and Nostoc piscinale. An alkaloid and four phthalate derivatives was presumed responsible for the antimicrobial and antialgal activities. (4)
Antibacterial and Antifungal: Study of various extracts showed the ethanolic hot extract showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. Major components in the extracts were saponins, polyoses, alkaloid salts, and reducing compounds. Results show the devastating aquatic weed, with its strong antimicrobial potentials and biologically active phytochemicals, may be useful for developing alternative compounds to treat infectious diseases. (5)
Antitumor on In-Vivo Induced-Melanoma: Water hyacinth is considered by some to be the world's worse aquatic plant, presenting a severe environmental and economic problems in all gulf coast states and many other parts of the world. Study screened a 50% methanolic leaf extract for tumor inhibition potential using B16F10 in vivo melanoma-tumor bearing hybrid mice models. Results showed tumor inhibition in animals subjected to 500 mg/kbw, with decrease of tumor volume when compared to control groups. (6)
Antioxidant: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of ethanol extract of fresh Eichhornia crassipes on reducing power assay and DPPH assay. Results showed concentration dependent reducing power. Free radical scavenging activity was comparable to 400µg of ascorbic acid. Results showed the potential of water hyacinth as a source of natural antioxidants. (7)
Hepatoprotective / CCl4 Hepatotoxicity: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of E crassipes against CCl4 induced albino rats. Results showed hepatoprotective activity, with significant reduction in SGPT, SGOT, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. (8)
Phytoremediation Potential / Zinc, Lead, and Cadmium: Study evaluated the efficacy of aquatic macrophyte E. crassipes for the removal of selected heavy metals (Zn, Cd, and Pb) in laboratory conditions. Results showed E. crassipes removed appreciable amount of the heavy metals, and concludes EC is a hyper accumulator of Zn, Cd and Pb from aqueous solution. (9)
Arsenic Removal from Organs of Arsenic Treated Rat / Root Extract: Study evaluated an ethanol extract of water hyacinth in ameliorating arsenic from arsenic-treated rats. Results showed significant reduction of arsenic accumulation in liver, spleen, kidney, intestine, lungs and skin, reducing the oxidative stress caused by arsenic as evidenced by decreased malondialdehyde in the organs. (10)
Anticancer / Human Cervical Cancer Cell Line: Study evaluated a methanol extract of E. crassipes for in-vitro anticancer activity against human cancer cell line (HeLa) by MTT assay analyzing cell growth inhibition. Results showed mild anticancer activity. (14)
• Antimicrobial Against Plant Pathogens:
Study detected significant peroxidation and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems in leaf extracts. Fractionated leaf extracts showed antimicrobial activities against some bacteria and pathogenic fungi. The most effective antifungal and antimicrobial agent against some plant pathogens was the n-butyl alcohol extract. It reduced the production or mycotoxin e.g. Aflatoxin B1 and Ochratoxin A. Results suggest potential as biofungicides and industrial use. (16)
• Larvicidal: Varying concentrations of crude root extracts showed 100% efficiency against Chironomus ramosus Chaudhuri eggs and larvae. Light petroleum, EA, and aqueous extracts and methanol and ethanol fractions showed good activity against Culex quinquefasciatus. (17)
• Shikimic Acid: Shikimic acid is an important intermediate in the biosynthesis of aromatic compounds in plants and microorganisms. It is a lead compound in the production of antiviral agent oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu). HPLC-PDA analysis of the plant showed aerial parts yielded higher shikimic acid concentrations than the roots, 0.03%-2.70% w/w and 0.05%-0.90% w/w, respectively. Methanol was a better solvent than water for shikimic acid extraction. (18)
• Cytotoxicity Against Four Cancer Cell Lines: Study evaluated crude extract and pure compounds of E. crassipes for antioxidant (DPPH and ABTS) and anticancer (MCF-7, HeLa, HepG2, and EACC cell lines) activities. The crude extract showed highest antioxidant effect. Compound 1 showed most potent anticancer activity against HepG2 cell line while compound D showed highest activity against HeLa and EACC. (19)
• Phytotoxic / Cytotoxic: Study evaluated dichlormethane and methanol extracts of whole plant for in-vitro biological activities. The dichlormethane extract showed significant phytotoxicity (100% growth regulation) at 1,000 µg/ml concentration against Lemna minor while the methanol extract showed 75% regulation. The methanol extract showed cytotoxicity at highest dose against brine-shrimp larvae. Both extracts showed nonsignficant antifungal and antibacterial activity. (20)
• Decortication of Fibers for Production of Multifilament Non-Absorbable Surgical Suture: Study evaluated E. crassipes decortiicated petiole fibers as a new source of multifilament surgical sutures. Results suggest E. crassipes can be utilized as non-absorbable sutures with physical properties comparable to silk. (21)
• Antioxidant / Leaves: Methanolic extracts of leaves, bark, and petioles were evaluated for total antioxidant capacity using DPPH assay. Results showed significant antioxidant activity. Leaves yielded maximum total phenolic content with IC50 value of 0.217±0.032 mg/g DW. Petiole yielded the highest radical scavenging activity with IC50 of 6.411±0.46 mg/mL. (23)
• Antioxidant / Antibacterial / Cytotoxic / Leaves: Study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic potential of E. crassipes leaf aqueous extracts and Syngonium podophyllum, as well as in vivo effect on isoniazid-induced oxidative stress and hepatic biomarkers in rats. Both extracts showed protection against lipid peroxidation. EC showed better antioxidant activity. Both extracts showed considerable activity against P. vulgaris, S. typhi and B. bronchiseptica. E. crassipes mitigated isoniazid induced alterations in serum enzymes, while S. podophyllum was found to be hepatotoxic. (24)
• Phytoremediation / Crude Oil Polluted Water: Study evaluated E. crassipes for remediation potential of crude oil polluted water. Results showed a promising technique for the removal of bioaccumulated contaminants from crude oil polluted water. (25)
• Alternative Raw Material for Reducing Sugars Production: E. crassipes is found in large quantities, yields a high content of hemicellulose, is non-competitive with agricultural foods cultivation, and is relative low cost with a high growth rate. Data suggests E. crassipes is suitable as raw material for products such as bioethanol. (28)
• Potential as Green Manure for Organic Farming / Composting: E. crassipes is a noxious weed that pollutes all fresh water bodies. In a study for growth control, one method suggests its use as composting material. Study of physical and chemical parameters in soil suggest potential use of Eichhornia crassipes as organic manure. (29)
• Removal of Pb, Zn, Cu,, and Cd:
Comparative study evaluated the removal of toxic metals from aqueous solutions by long-root E. crassipes and E. crassipes. Removal percentage of toxic metals was in the order of Pb>Cd>Cu>Zn; long-root E. crassipes was better than E. crassipes. Removal mainly occurred in the roots, and the main removal process was adsorption. Results suggest LRE can be used as biodegradable adsorbent for fast and efficient purification of polluted water bodies. (31)
• Removal of Phenol from Aqueous Solution: Study evaluated the removal of phenol from aqueous solution by dried water hyacinth. Phenol is a very hazardous chemical with potential toxicity to human health and very harmful even at low concentrations. Study suggests water hyacinth is a suitable adsorbent to remove phenol from aqueous solution, easily available and low cost. (32)
• Treatment of Pesticide Polluted Waste Water: Pesticides are toxic to non-target receptors including humans, reaching them through the food chain. Most pesticides are non-biodegradable. Study suggests water hyacinth to have goot efficiency in treating pesticide industry waste water. Water hyacinth treatment was economical and ecofriendly. (33)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Updated August 2017
December 2013


IMAGE SOURCE: Photo / File:Eichhornia crassipes A.jpg / Wouter Hagens / 5 December 2001 / Public Domain / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY OF EXTRACTS OF EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES (MART.) SOLMS / P. LALITHA, SHUBASHINI.K. SRIPATHI AND P. JAYANTHI / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 5, Issue 4, 2012
(2)
Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of The Various Solvent Extracts Of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms / P.Jayanthi, P.Lalitha*, R.Sujitha and A.Thamaraiselvi / Int.J.PharmTech Res.2013,5(2)
(3)
Preliminary studies on phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity of solvent extracts of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.)Solms / Thamaraiselvi, P. Lalitha* and P. Jayanthi / Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research, 2012, 2 (2):115-122
(4)
Allelopathic Effects of Water Hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes / Sanaa M. M. Shanab, Emad A. Shalaby, David A. Lightfoot, Hany A. El-Shemy mail / PLoS ONE 5(10): e13200. / DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013200
(5)
Bioactivity and biochemical analysis of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) / Bikash Baral, Geeta Shrestha Vaidya, Nabin Bhattarai / Botanica Orientalis, Journal of Plant Science, 2011, 8:33-39 / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/botor.v810.5556
(6)
The world's worst aquatic plant as a safe cancer medicine "antitumor activity on melanoma induced mouse by Eichornia crassipes: in vivo studies / Huma Ali, Meha Patel, Ganesh N, Janak Ahi / Journal of Pharmacy Research 2009 Vol. 2 No. 8 pp. 1365-1366
(7)
Study of antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of fresh Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.)Solms. / Thamaraiselvi, P. Lalitha; Jayanthi, P./ Der Pharmacia Sinica . 2012, Vol. 3 Issue 2, p271-277. 7p.
(8)
HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF LEAVES EXTRACT OF EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES AGAINST CCL4 INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY ALBINO RATS / G. Dineshkumar, R. Rajakumar, P. Mani*and T.M.M. Johnbastin / International Journal of Pure and Applied Zoology, Vol. 1, Issue 3, pp: 209-212, 2013
(9)
Removal of zinc, lead and cadmium by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) / Raisa Kabeer, Rinoy Varghese, Jaysooryan, K. K., Joshy George, Ambily V. and Sylas V. P. / International Journal of Current Research
(10)
Effect of water hyacinth root extract on arsenic level in different organs of arsenic-treated rat
/ Shaheen Lipika Quayum / Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2007; 2: 73-80
(11)
Eichornia crassipes / Common names / Medicinal Plants
(12)
Eichhornia crassipes / Synonyms / Kew / Catalogue of Life
(13)
Antimicrobial activity of solvent extracts of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms
/ P. Jayanthi and P. Lalitha / Der Pharma Chemica, 2013, 5(3):135-140
(14)
ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF WATER HYACINTH [EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES / L. M. Lenora, J. Senthil Kumar S. Murugesan and N. Senthilkumar* / Octa Journal of Environmental Research, Vol 3(4): pp 327-331, Oct-Dec 2015
(15)
Eichhornia crassipes / Plants For A Future
(16)
Phytochemical Analysis, Antifungal, Antimicrobial Activities and Application of Eichhornia crassipesAgainst Some Plant Pathogens /
M.W. HAGGAG / S.M. ABOU EL ELLA /  H.F. ABOUZIENA / Planta daninha vol.35  Viçosa  2017 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0100-83582017350100026 
(17)
Pharmaceutical potential of aquatic plant Pistia stratiotes (L.) and Eichhornia crassipes
/ Tyagi Tulika, Agrawal Mala / Journal of Plant Sciences, 2015; 3(1-1): 10-18 / doi: 10.11648/j.jps.s.2015030101.12
(18)
Eichhornia crassipes: an advantageous source of shikimic acid / Sthephanie F. Cardoso, Lucia M.X. Lopes, Isabele R. Nascimento* / Rev Bras Farmacogn 24(2014): 439-442
(19)
Cytotoxic and antioxidant properties of active principals isolated from water hyacinth against four cancer cells lines / Ahmed M Aboul-EneinSanaa MM ShanabEmad A Shalaby, Malak M ZahranDavid  A  Lightfoot and Hany A El-Shemy / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (ISCMR) 2014, 14:397 / https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-14-397
(20)
Biological Screening of Eichornia crassipes against Different Pathogenic Microbes: An In Vitro Study /
Rubina Rehman, Muhammad Shahzad Aslam*, Bashir Ahmad Choudhary, Muhammad Uzair, Abdul Subhan Ijaz, Muhammad Syarhabil Ahmad / Recent Advances in Biology and Medicine, Vol. 2, Pages 79-82, 2016 / dx.doi.org/10.18639/RABM.2016.02.336646
(21)
Decortication of Eichhornia Crassipes (Pontederiaceae) Fibers for the Production of Multifilament Non-Absorbable Surgical Suture / Marie Denise Joie A Abe, Clarence F Cariño, Christian John N Gabrito, Rochelle N Gironella, Alysha Joy V Sadhwani, Kevin Christopher A Viray and Andrea Q Carigma / Journal of Molecular Pharmaceutics & Organic Process Research 2:118. / doi: 10.4172/2329-9053.100011
(22)
Eichhornia crassipes – The ‘Jekyll and Hyde’ of the freshwater world. / Sarah Hanson / Posted on March 20, 2013 
(23)
Antioxidant Properties and Phenolic Compounds in Methanolic Extracts of Eichhornia crassipes.  / Tulika Tyagi and Mala Agarwal / Research Journal of Phytochemistry, 11: 85-89 (2017) / DOI: 10.3923/rjphyto.2017.85.89 
(24)
In Vitro Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Cytotoxic Activity and In Vivo Effect of Syngonium podophyllumand Eichhornia crassipes Leaf Extracts on Isoniazid Induced Oxidative Stress and Hepatic Markers / Shashank Kumar, Ramesh Kumar, Astha Dwivedi, and Abhay Pandey / BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/459452
(25)
Phytoremediation potentials of water Hyacinth. Eichhornia Crassipes (mart.) Solms in crude oil polluted water / OCHEKWU, EDACHE BERNARD; MADAGWA, BLESSING / J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. Dec 2013 Vol. 17 (4) 503-507
(26)
Traditional Uses of Medicinal Plants in Treating Skin Diseases in Nagapattinam District of Tamil Nadu, India / R. Sivaranjani and K. Ramakrishnan / IRJP 2012, 3(5)
(27)
NUTRITIVE VALUE OF WATER HYACINTH (Eichhornia crassipes) / Md. Emran HOSSAIN*, Hillol SIKDER, Md. Hossain KABIR and Sabuj Manohar SARMA / Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research, 5(2); pp 40-44
(28)
Evaluation of Eichhornia crassipes as an Alternative Raw Material for Reducing Sugars Production / Héctor A. Fileto-Pérez, José G. Rutiaga-Quiñones, Cristobal N. Aguilar-González, Jesús B. Páez, Javier López, and Olga M. Rutiaga-Quiñones * / BioResources 8(4), 5340-5348
(29)
WATER HYACINTH AS A GREEN MANURE FOR ORGANIC FARMING / SHARDA VIDYA & LAKSHMI GIRISH / International Journal of Research in Applied, Natural and Social Sciences, Vol 2, Issue 6, June 2014; pp 65-72
(30)
Use of Indigenous Plants in Traditional Health Care Systems by Mishing Tribe of Dikhowmukh, Sivasagar District, Assam / Ratna Jyoti Das, Kalyani Pathak / International Journal of Herbal Medicine 2013; 1 (3): 50-57
(31)
Removal of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd by Two Types of Eichhornia crassipes / Li Qiang, Zhan Juhong, Chen Bo, Meng Xiangqi, and Pan Xuejun. / Environmental Engineering Science. February 2016, 33(2): 88-97 / https://doi.org/10.1089/ees.2015.0091
(32)
REMOVAL OF PHENOL FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY DRIED WATER HYACINTH (Eichhornia Crassipes) / MOHD HAZWAN BIN MOHAMAD SHAYUTI / Dissertation: April 2010
(33)
Treatment of Pesticides Industry Wastewater by Water Hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) / Omprakash Sahu / Advanced Research Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology. Vol. 1(2): pp 6-13, May, 2014
(34)
Ethnomedicinal Practices among a Minority Group of Christians Residing in Mirzapur Village of Dinajpur District, Bangladesh / Mohammed Rahmatullah, A.A.B. Tajbilur Kabir, Md. Mahfuzur Rahman, Md. Shahadat Hossan, Zubaida Khatun, Mst. Afsana Khatun, Rownak Jahan / Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 4(1): 45-51, 2010
(35)
Traditional medicinal plants of Nigeria: an overview / Monier M. Abd El-Ghani / AGRICULTURE AND BIOLOGY JOURNAL OF NORTH AMERICA / doi:10.5251/abjna.2016.7.5.220.247

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