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Family Portulacaceae
A las diyes
Portulaca grandiflora Hook.
TIME FLOWER
Da hua ma chi xian

Scientific names Common names
Portulaca grandiflora Hook. A las diyes (Tag.)
Portulaca hilaireana G.Don Flowering purslane (Engl.)
Portulaca immersostellulata Poelln. Moss-rose purslane
Portulaca mendocinensis Gilles ex Hook. Ross moss (Engl.)
Portulaca multistaminata Poelln. Rock rose (Engl.)
  Sunflower (Engl.)
  Sun plant (Engl.)
  Sun rose (Engl.)
  Ten o'clock flower (Engl.)
  Time flower (Engl)
  Vietnam rose (Engl.)
Three Philippine medicinal plants use the "time of day" for their common names, according to when the flowers are fully opened: Alas diyes (Portulaca grandiflora, 10 o'clock), Alas doce (Hibiscus cannabinus, 12 o'clock), and Alas cuatro (Mirabilis jalapa, 4 o'clock).
Portulaca grandiflora Hook. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BANGLADESH: Time fuul.
BURMESE: Taing long chanta.
CHINESE: Da hua ma chi xian.
HINDI: Nonia.
INDIA: Nau bajiya.
MANIPURI: Pung mapan satpi.
PAKISTAN: Gul dopheri.
PORTUGUESE: Onze-horas.
THAI: Daeng sawan, Phak bia farang, Phrae siang hai.
URDU: Gul-e-shma.
VIETNAM: Hoa mur oi gio.

Gen info
Portulaca comes from the Latin portula, meaning "little gate," for the top of the seed capsule that opens like a gate.

Botany
Portulaca grandiflora is a low, fleshy, trailing perennial herb attaining a height of 15 to 30 centimeters. . Stems are slender and terete, prostrate or ascending, with hairy joints. Leaves are small, thick and fleshy, clustered, up to 2 centimeters long, alternate or in small clusters.. Flowers are showy, terminal, up t 3 centimeters across, subtended by clustered leaves. Petals are five, red, white, yellow or pink, opening in mid-morning and closing by mid-afternoon. Fruit is a small capsule, releasing seeds when ripe.

Distribution
- Widely distributed in the Philippines.
- Popular use as ground cover.
- Native to Brazil.

Constituents
- Petals have yielded free betalamic acid, together with betaxanthins. Tyrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) are precursors of betalain biosynthesis. (3)
- Total ash and acid-insoluble ash contents were not more than 19% and 1% w/w, respectively. (6)
- Phytochemical screening of aerial parts yielded sterols, carotenoids, polyphenolic acids, flavonoids, polysaccharides, reducing agents and triterpenoids. (see study below) (12)

Properties
- Studies have shown antioxidant, lipid-regulating, phytoremediative, antibacterial properties.

Parts used
Flowers, leaves, flowers, juice.

Uses
Edibility
- Leaves are edible, raw or cooked.
- Seeds, raw or cooked; can be ground into a powder and used in soups or added to cereals.
- Root is cooked.
Folkloric
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Used for the treatment of cirrhosis of the liver, pharyngeal pain and swelling.
- Leaves used for scurvy.
- Fresh juice of leaves and stems applied to snake and insect bites, burns, scalds, and eczema. (4)
- In Chinese medicine, used to treat various tumors. One of the ingredients of the Chinese herbal medicine, Tumoclear (Kang zhong pian) formulated for tumor and cancer care.
- In Thai medicine, aerial parts used for treatment of sore throat, skin rash and detoxification.
- Leaves and flowers worn around the neck to relieve muscle spasms and neck stiffness.
Others
- Superstitions: Flowers and leaves placed on child's bed to drive evil spirits away. (9)


Studies
Chronic Toxicity Study:
Study evaluated the toxic effects of Portulaca grandiflora aqueous extract in male and female Wistar rats for 6 months. The water extract at given doses of 10, 100, and 1000 mg/k per day did not induce any detrimental effect in rats. (2)
Phytoremediation Potential :
Study showed wild and tissue cultured plants of P. grandiflora were able to decolorize sulfonated diazo dye Navy Blue HE2R up to 98% in 40 h. The significant induction in the activities of lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase and DCIP reductase was observed in roots during dye decolorization. Phytotoxicity study showed reduction in toxicity due to metabolites formed after dye degradation. (5)
Safety Study / Phase 1 Trial / Healthy Human Volunteers:
A phase 1 clinical trial in 16 healthy volunteers investigated the safety of P. grandiflora, as well as preliminarily assess its efficacy on the immune system. The aqueous extract at 500 mg/day dose given to normal volunteers for 2 months was found to be safe. (7)
Effect on Human Lymphocyte Activity:
Study showed P. grandiflora extract enhanced lymphocyte proliferation, suggesting a possible role as putative immunostimulant. (8)
Antioxidant / Lipid Regulating Effects / Betacyanin Extract:
Study of a betacyanin extract of Portulaca grandiflora showed scavenging effects which superoxide anion, OH, and DPPH free radicals. The betacyanin extract significantly reduced total cholesterol, TG, LDL-C, Apo B. It also significantly decreased the atherosclerosis index suggesting an atherosclerosis preventive effect. (10)
Portulene Acetal:
A new clerodane diterpenoid was isolated as a minor constituent from P. grandiflora, a compound that might be significant in the biosynthesis and chemosystematics of constituents of the genus Portulaca. Its features provide clues for the biosynthesis of portulaca. (11)
Antibacterial / Aerial Parts:
Study of alcoholic extract of aerial parts showed varying degrees of inhibition against all bacterial strains tested, with more MIC for Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by C. albicans. (see constituensts above) (12)
Fluoride Phytoremediation:
Fluoride is one of the common environmental pollutant in soil and water. Study evaluated the possible role of P. grandiflora and B. oleracea plants to uptake and accumulate fluoride from water. The accumulation of fluoride was comparatively more in root than on leaf parts in both studied plants. Results showed both plants can clean fluoride contaminated water and presents a cost effective and ecofriendly alternative for in situ treatment of soil and water samples. (13)

Prevention of Neuroinflammation or Neurodegenerative Diseases / Patent Application: Patent application made for an invention of a pharmaceutical composition and food composition containing Portulaca grandiflora or fraction as active ingredient for preventing, treating or ameliorating neuroinflammation or neurodegenerative diseases by inhibition of expression of NO, PGE2, iNOS, and/or COX-2 genes or protein. (16)
• Gold Nanoparticles / Leaf and Stem / Cytotoxicity Against Glioma Human Cancer Cells: Study on the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using leaf and stem extracts of green roof vegetation. The presence of proteins and polyphenols were responsible for the reduction and stabilization of gold nanoparticles. Study for antiproliferative effects using C6 glioma human cancer cells showed decreased viability of glioma cell lines up to 50%. (17)

Availability
- Wild-crafted.
- Seeds. mixed or double-flower variety, in the cybermarket.

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Updated July 2017 / September 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Illustration / USDA-NRCS Plants Database / Britton, NL and A Brown. 1913 / An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. Vol 2: 41 / Lurig alterVISTA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Sorting Portulaca names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 The University of Melbourne.
(2)
Chronic toxicity study of Portulaca grandiflora Hook. / Chavalittumrong P, Chivapat S, Attawish A, Bansiddhi J, Phadungpat S, Chaorai B, Butraporn R. / J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Feb;90(2-3):375-80.
(3)
Medicinal and Aromatic Plants IX / edited by Y. P. S. Bajaj / Google Books
(4)
Ross Moss / Natural Medicinal Herbs
(5)
Phytoremediation potential of Portulaca grandiflora Hook. (Moss-Rose) in degrading a sulfonated diazo reactive dye Navy Blue HE2R (Reactive Blue 172). / Khandare RV, Kabra AN, Kurade MB, Govindwar SP / Bioresource technology 102:12 2011 Jun pg 6774-7
(6)
Chemical Specification of Dried Aerial Parts of Portulaca grandiflora Hook.f. / Somchit Niumsakul, Apirak Sakpetch, Jaree Bansiddhi, Tidarat Boonruad, Prapai Wongsinkongman, Pranee Chavalittumrong / Journal of Thai Traditional & Alternative Medicine, Vol 6,No 2, May-August 2008
(7)
Safety of the aqueous extract of Portulaca grandiflora Hook in healthy volunteers / Pranee Chavalittumrong, Busarawan Sriwanthana, Archawin Rojanawiwat, Rungrueng Kijphati, Bongkod Jitjuk, Weena Treesangsri, Songphol Phadungpat, Jaree Bansiddhi and Malee Bunjob / Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., March 2007, 29(Suppl. 1) : 95-100
(8)
In vitro effects of Thai medicinal plants on human lymphocyte activity / Busarawan Sriwanthana, Weena Treesangsri, Bongkod Boriboontrakul, Somchit Niumsakul, and Pranee Chavalittumrong / Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol. Vol.29 (Suppl. 1), March 2007 : Thai Herbs II
(9)
Portulaca / GoodWitchesMagicalFlowers
(10)
Studies on the Antioxidant and Blood Lipid Regulating Effects of Betacyanin Extract from Portulaca Grandiflora HOOK / Thesis / China Papers 2013
(11)
Portulene Acetal, a Novel Minor Constituent of Portulaca grandiflora with Significance for the Biosynthesis of Portulal / Ayumi Ohsaki *, Yukihiro Asaka, Takashi Kubota, Kozo Shibata and Takashi Tokoroyama / J. Nat. Prod., 1997, 60 (9), pp 912–914 / DOI: 10.1021/np970241t
(12)
Pharmacognostic standardization and antibacterial potential of aerial herbs of Portulaca grandiflora Hooker (Portulaceae) / Shinde P R, , Wagh K. R, Patil P. S, Bairagi V. A / World Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2014; 2(12): 1871-1885
(13)
Evaluation of fluoride uptake and accumulation by Portulaca grandiflora Hook. and Brassica oleracea Linn. from water / *Patil S. B., Jagdale A. D., Patil D. B. , Kulkarni A. S. and Govindwar S. P. / International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Research (IJSETR), Volume 3, Issue 12, December 2014
(14)
Portulaca grandiflora Hook. / Synonyms / The Plant List
(15)
Portulaca grandiflora / Synonyms / The Plant List
(16)
PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITION CONTAINING PORTULACA GRANDIFLORA HOOK. EXTRACT OR FRACTION THEREOF AS ACTIVE INGREDIENT FOR PREVENTING OR TREATING NEURO-INFLAMMATION OR NEURO-DEGENERATIVE DISEASES / Document Type and Number: WIPO Patent Application WO/2016/032250
(17)
Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using green roof species Portulaca grandiflora and their cytotoxic effects against C6 glioma human cancer cells / Ashok Kumar, Jesu Arockiaraj, K. Vijauyaraghavan / TOC, Vol 35, Issue 6, Nove 2016, Pp 1732-1740 / DOI: 10.1002/ep.12385

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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