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Family Calophyllaceae
Calophyllum blancoi Planch & Triana
Lan yu hu tong

Scientific names Common names
Calophyllum blancoi Planch & Triana
Basañgal (Ilk.)
Calophyllum changii N.Robson Bitañgol (Tag., S.L.Bis., P. Bis., Bik.)
Calophyllum ferrugineum Merr. Bitangor (Bik.)
Calophyllum flavocortica Elmer Bitaog (Tag., C. Bis., Mbo.)
Calophyllum glabrum Merr. Bitaog-bakil (Pang., Sbl.)
Calophyllum megistanthum Quisumb. & Merr. Bitaol (Ting.) 
Calophyllum mindanaense Elmer Bitaong (P. Bis.)  
Calophyllum pseudowallichianum Engl. Botol (Ig.)  
Calophyllum racemosum Merr. Dangkalan (Palw.)
  Palo mario del monte (Tag., Sp., Bik.)
  Palumut (Tagb.,)
  Pameklatan (Ilk.)
  Pamitlatin (Ilk.)
  Pamitaogen (Ilk.)
  Pamitaoyen (Pang.)
  Pamitaugen (Ilk.)
  Tadak (Neg.)
Bitaog is a common name shared by (1) Bitangol, Calophyllum blancoi, and (2) Palo maria, Calophyllum isophyllum
Calophyllum blancoi Planch. & Triana is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Lan yu hong hou ke, Lan yu hu tong.
SPANISH: Palo mario del monte.

Gen info
- The Calophyllum genus is composed of about 200 species with a pantropical distribution. Some species are part of many indigenous systems of folkloric treatment for a wide range of maladies – tumors, inflammation, ulcers, pain.

• Bitangol is an erect tree, growing to a height of about 25 meters. Leaves are opposite, slightly hairy, oblong, about 10 centimeters long and 3 centimeters wide, with numerous parallel and closely set veins. Panicles are shorter or equal to the leaves in length, erect or ascending from the upper leaf axils. Flowers are creamy white, about 2 centimeters across. Fruit is ellipsoid.

• Calophyllum blancoi is a medium-sized to large tree up to 40 m tall with bole up to 60 cm in diameter, without buttresses; twigs 4-angled, terminal bud plump, 6-20 mm long. Leaves elliptical to suboblong, rarely obovate, (3-)5-25(-30) cm long, cuneate or abruptly attenuate at base, acuminate at apex, with 5-18(-22) veins per 5 mm. Inflorescences terminal and/or axillary, branched up to 2 times, 9-many-flowered; flowers with 8-16 tepals. Fruit ovoid to subspherical, 12-22 mm long, with fairly thin, compact outer layer, green, bluish or black. (7)

- Native to the Philippines.
- In primary forests, in low and medium altitudes.
- Abundant from Cagayan to Sorsogon Provinces in Luzon; and in Ambil, Palawan, Masbate, Leyte, Panay, and Mindanao.
- Also native to Borneo and Taiwan.
- Supply in the Philippines is not abundant; supply depleted by logging and shifting cultivating.

- Fractionation of acetone extract of seeds yielded six pyranochromanone derivatives:
apetalic acid (1), isoapetalic acid (2), apetalic acid methyl ester (3), apetalic acid 5-O-acetate (4), isoapetalic methyl ester (5), and isoapetalic acid 5-O-acetate (6), together with one new dihydrocoumarin derivative, isorecedensolide (7) and recedensolide (8). (see study below) (1)
- Study of roots isolated three new pyranoxanthones, blancoxanthone (1), acetyl blancoxanthone (2) and 3-hydroxyblancoxanthone (3), together with two known pyranoxanthones, pyranojacaeubin (4) and caloxanthone (5). (see study below) (2)

Studies have suggested anti-tumor, antiviral, anti-melanoma, antiplasmodial properties.

Parts used
Bark, leaves, sap.

- Sap of the bark, when mixed with sulphur, used in the treatment of boils and wounds.
- In Mindanao tribal medicine, piece of cloth moistened with sap of bark applied to the breast for treatment of cancer. (8)
- For foreign body discomfort in the eyes - "napuwing" - infusion of slices leaves used for removal.

- Wood: Heartwood is reddish-brown, with density of 500-650 kg/m3 and 15% moisture. Used for building boats, masts and spars, beams, joists, rafters, furniture and cabinetry.

Chromanones / Anti-Cancer / Seeds:
Study on the fractionated acetone extract of Calophyllum blancoi seeds yielded six pyranochromanone derivatives, together with isorecedensolide and recedensolide. Compounds 3, 4, 5, 7, and 8 showed showed mild activity against KB (human oral epidermoid carcinoma) and Hela (human cervical epitheloid carcinoma) tumor cell lines. (see constituents above) (1)
Xanthones / Anti-Viral / Anti-Coronavirus:
Root phytochemical studies in Taiwan isolated three new pyranoxanthones – blancoxanthone, acetyl blancoxanthone, and 3-hydroxyblancoxanthone. Biological study of the isolated xanthones revealed that blancoxanthone (co
mpound 1) exhibited significant anti-coronavirus activity. (see study above) (2)
Betulinic Acid / Anti-Melanoma:
Three Calophyllum species–C. blancoi, C. gracilipes, C. teysmannii–isolated betulinic acid, a strongly cytotoxic triterpene reportedly useful for the treatment of melanoma.
Anti-Plasmodial Ac
tivity: The crude extract of 30 plants species were evaluated for anti-plasmodial activity. Of 14 species that showed significant antiplasmodial activity, C. blancoi was one of six that displayed varying degrees of activity towards both the sensitive and resistant P. falciparum strains, although only weak activity towards the resistant strain. (5)


Updated August 2023 / January 2018 / April 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: Photo : Calophyllaceae: Calophyllum blanco / Flowering twig / Copyright © 2015 by P B Pelser & J F Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL96976] / Non-Commercial Use / click on image or link to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Flower close-up / Calophyllum blancoi Planch. & Triana / plj.johnny / Li Chieh Pan / Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic / click on image to go to source page / flickr

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Chromanones and Dihydrocoumarins from Calophyllum blancoi / Ya-Ching Shen, Li-Tang Wang, Ashraf Taha Khalil and Yao-Haur Kuo /
CHEMICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN, 2004; 52(4): pp 402-405, / DOI: 10.1002/chin.200437224
Bioactive Pyranoxanthones from the Roots of Calophyllum blancoi / SHEN Y-C, WANG L,
Ashraf Taha Khalil, Lien Chai Chiang, Pei-Wen Cheng / Chemical & pharmaceutical bulletin, 2005; 53(2): pp 244-247 / DOI: 10.1248/cpb.53-244
Bioactive Principles from Folkloric Anti-Neoplastic Plants and from Bioprospecting the Malaysian Forest / Swee Hock Goh / Chemistry Department, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260
Calophyllum blancoi Planch. & Triana / KEW: Plants of the World Online
In vitro Antiplasmodial Properties of Selected Plants of Sabah / S Khozirah, A Noor Rain et al / Pertanika J. Sci. & Technol., 2011; 19(1):  pp 11-17
Calophyllum blancoi Planch. et Triana (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China

Calophyllum blancoi (PROSEA) / RHMJ Lemmens / Pl@ntUse
ETHNOBOTANICAL PLANTS USED BY SELECTED INDIGENOUS PEOPLES OF MINDANAO, THE PHILIPPINES AS CANCER THERAPEUTICS / Jayson R Pucot, Muhmin Michael E Manting, Cesar G Demayo / Pharmacophore, 2019; 10(3): pp 61-69 /  ISSN: 2229-5402

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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