Dalanghita is a small tree. Leaves are smooth, oblong to broadly lanceolate, 4 to
10 centimeters long, with narrowly winged short petioles of about 1 centimeter long. Flowers are white,
short-pedicelled and mostly solitary.. Fruits are hesperidums, with a loose
skin and leathery pericarp, with a sweet pulp that is only fairly juicy.
Green fruit turns to yellow, greenish yellow or orange. Of many varieties, the large ones attain a size of about 10 centimeters in diameter and about 9 centimeters thick. Pulp is sweet and only fairly juicy.
- Widely scattered in cultivation
in the Philippines.
- Large scale cultivation in the Batangas Province in Luzon.
- Probably a native of southern China.
- Now found in all warm countries.
- Rind: Volatile
oil, 14-19.33%-limonene, 92% and methylanthranillic acid, methyl
- Juice: Citric acid, 0.35% - 1.2%; vitamins A, B, and C; hesperidin.
- Volatile oil of fruit peels yielded mainly monoterpenes (99.1%) constituting l-limonene (92.4%), g-terpene (2.6%), and ß-phellandrene (1.8%).
- Peel extracts yielded reducing sugars, terpenoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, and tannins. (12)
- Preliminary phytochemical screening of methanolic extracts of C. reticulata peel yielded carbohydrates, amino acids, flavonoids, steroids, tannins, and phenolic derivatives. (see study below ) (16)
- Study of leaf and fruit peel of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Santra for essential oils
by GLC and GLC/MS analysis yielded 131 components. Leaf oil yielded 109 compounds with sabinene (23.10%) and linalool (21.20%) as major components. Fruit peel yielded 64 components with limonene (79.64%) as most abundant. (see study below) (17)
- Ethanolic peel extract yielded maltol, 3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-2,3-dihydro- 4h-pyran-4-one, glycerol, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, 2-methoxy-4vinylphenol, 3-[n'-(3h-indol-3-ylmethylene)- hydrazino]-5-methyl-[1,2,4]triazol-4- ylamine, nitroisobutylglycerol, 1,6-anhydro-.beta.-d-glucopyranose, 3,3',4',5,5',7,8-heptamethoxyflavone, butylphosphonic acid, pentyl 4-(2- phenylprop-2-yl)phenyl ester, 4h-1-benzopyran-4-one, 2-(3,4- dimethoxyphenyl)-5,6,7-trimethoxy. (18)
- Rind preparation
tastes bitter, with mild nature.
The fibers of the rind tastes bitter-sweet,
used and preparation
rind and seeds.
· Rind preparation: gather the rind of any ripe citrus
fruit and sun-dry, either whole or cut into thin slices.
· Seed preparation: place the seed in a container, add
an amount of water equal to one fiftieth of the total weight
of the seeds, store for a short time and put into a dry kettle.
Heat with a weak fire until the materials turn light yellow and
smell fragrant. Sun-dry the material. Crush before using.
· Fruit is a good source
of vitamin C.
· Rind used for flavoring.
- The seed preparation has pain relieving effect.
In Malaya, a decoction
of the roots is used in dysentery.
Powdered leaves with leaves of Areca
catechu may be drunk for stomach ache.
An infusion of the fresh juice
is used as a cleanser or stimulant of wound surfaces.
A lotion of the
boiled leaves is used hot on painful places and swelling in Malaya.
Seed preparation tastes bitter with pain relieving effect.
· For nausea and fainting, rind squeezed near nostril for irritant
· Decoction of roots used for cough and fever.
· For coughs, boil a concentrated decoction of the rind and drink.
· For anorexia and vomiting: add fresh rhizome of ginger to a
concentrated decoction of the rind and drink.
· Decoction of dried flowers used for diarrhea.
· Decoction of rind or peel used to regulate menses.
· Leg bath of boiled leaves used for rheumatism, and painful
and swollen legs.
· Oil from rind used for stomach problems; and as liniment for
gout, rheumatism and other painful swellings.
Note: The folkloric applications are similar for
all Citrus species.
· Phytochemical: The volatile compounds in three selected Asian
citrus fruits (C. nobilis, C. sinensis, C reticulata) were characterized.
A total of 51 compounds were detected in C. nobilis, 41 in Dalandan:
terpenes, carbonyls, alcohols, esters and hydrocarbons, with limonene
as the main compound.
/ Naringin Citrus Flavonone: Naringin, a prominent
bioflavonoids in grapefruit and other citrus fruits, is present in C.
nobilis. Study on the free radical scavenging of naringin revealed a
dose-dependent scavenging and demonstrates it can protect mouse bone
marrow cells against radiation-induced chromosomal damage. (2)
· Nobiletin / Sebum Reduction / Acne: Nobiletin, a flavonoid present in the peel of many citrus fruits, especially prevalent in C nobilis, in a mixture with ethanol and glycerol, applied to the ears of hamsters, once daily for 14 days, showed a decrease in the amount of triacylglycerol on the skin surface, reduced the size of and amount of oil produced by the sebaceous glands. Triacylglycerol is the main constituent of mammalian fat and a major component of sebum. Results suggest a potential in the treatment of acne. (3)
· Essential Oil / Hypoglycemic / Hypolipidemic: Essential oil of C. reticula was investigated for anti-diabetic activity in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic male wistar rats. Results showed the essential oil exhibited significant hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect in hyperglycemic rats. (6)
· Volatile Oil / Antibacterial: Volatile oil showed antibacterial and antifungal activities against pathogenic microbial strains: E. coli. S. aureus, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. fumigatus and Candida albicans under in vitro condition. (7)
· Lipid and Bone Density Benefits: An alternative therapy to estrogen deficiency is the use of phytoestrogen. C. reticulata's peel contain flavanone and polimethoxyflavone believed to provide an estrogenic effect. Study of CR peel extract showed beneficial modulation of bone density and blood cholesterol profile in ovariectomized rats in an animal model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. (8)
· Antioxidant: Mandarin peel, a waste product of juice production yielded flavonoids, of which hesperidin was the most dominant. Extract study showed prominent free radical scavenging towards DPPH. Results suggest mandarin peel powers can be used as substitute for synthetic antioxidants, providing health benefits and increasing food shelf-life. (9)
· Fumigant / Essential Oils: Study showed a potential for C. reticulata oil as a control agent against stored-product insect pest, red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. (10)
· Mosquito Repellency / Essential Oil / Rinds / Aedes aegypti: Results suggest essential oil from Citrus nobilis rinds could be a component of mosquito repellent products, and present an alternative to DEET and Picaridin. (11) Study evaluated the mosquito repellent activity of phytochemical extracts from peels of five citrus species, including C. reticulata. Results suggest active ingredients confused the olfactory receptors of the mosquito. Study showed good promise for topical repellence against mosquitoes. (22)
· Essential Oil Gel from Rind: Study evaluated the essential oil from rind for effectiveness as antibacterial to E. coli and S. aureus. Results showed the effective inhibitory concentration of essential oil was 0.5% for E. coli, and 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% for S. aureus. (13)
· Volatile Components of Flower, Leaf and Peel: Study evaluated the volatile flavor components of flower, leaf, and peel of C. nobilis Lour. var deliciosa. Flower yielded 39 components; leaf, 39, and peel, 25, including aldehydes, alcohols, esters, ketones, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The major flavor components were linalool, limonene, sabinene, α-pinene, ß-myrcene, terpinene-4-OI, (E)-ß-ocimene and y-terpinene. Aldehyde content is one of the most important indicators of quality, and was found highest in the flower oil. (14)
• Anti-Aging / Antioxidant / Anti-Collagenase and Anti-Elastase / Peel: Study evaluated the anti-aging potential of alcoholic extracts of C. reticulata Blanco peel using in vitro antioxidant and anti-enzyme assays. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were higher in the hot alcoholic extract (AC).than the cold alcoholic extract (CAE). Likewise, HAE exhibited stronger anti-collagenase and anti-elastase activity than the CAE. Results suggest the peel can be utilized as anti-wrinkle agent in skin care formulations. (see constituents above) (16)
• Leaf and Peel Essential Oil: Study of leaf and fruit peel of C. reticulta cv Santra yielded 131 components. Study evaluated the reuse and recycling of Egyptian santra mandarin leaves and fruit peel as common waste products. Results suggest suggest the use of the the waste products for the production of more valuable pure compounds such as limonene, sabinene, and linalool. (17)
• Inhibitory Effect on Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis / Amines: Study evaluated the amines from the pericarp of C. reticulata using cultured human embryonic lung fibroblasts (hELFs). Of the amines, 4-methoxyphenethylamine hydrochloride (designated as amine hydrochloride 1) showed the most potent inhibitory effect. In vivo experiments using a rat model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis showed oral administration of amine hydrochloride 1 significantly lowered the hydoxyproline content in both serum and lung tissue and alleviated pulmonary alveolitis and fibrosis. Results showed a therapeutic potential in the treatment of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. (19)
· Anthelmintic / Anti-Schistosoma / Root: Study investigated the effect of S. mansoni infection of mice livers after treatment with ethanolic extract of C. reticulata root or the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree (Mirazid), an anti-schistosomal drug. Results showed treatment with C. reticulata or Mirazid improved all previous enzyme activities together with a noticeable reduction in ova count and worm burden. (20)
• Antibacterial / Increased Shelf-Life / Seeds: Study evaluated the susceptibility of foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms to seed extracts of C. reticulata and Citrillus vulgaris. The seed extracts of CR and CV exhibited bactericidal and fungicidal activity against all tested microorganisms. B. subtilis showed highest sensitivity. Results showed the ethanol extracts of C. reticulata and Citrillus vulgaris have potential application for shelf life extension and as a pharmaceutical preparation. (21)
/ Neuroprotective / Peel: Study of nobiletin-rich C. reticulata peel showed prevention of progression of cognitive impairment in donepazil-preadministered Alzheimer's disease patients. In this study, Citrus unshiu immature peel extract and nobiletin showed neuroprotective activity via inhibition of hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death in HT22 cells through MSPK activity, and the Bax and Bcl-2 pathway. (23)
Also see: Dalandan
- Widely cultivated for commercial fruiting.
- Essential oils in the cybermarket.