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Family Fabaceae / Leguminosae
Erythrina subumbrans (Hassk.) Merr.
Chi guo ci tong

Scientific names Common names
Corallodendron holosericeum (Kurz) Kuntze Dap-dap (Tagalog)
Corallodendron lithospermum (Blume ex Miq.) Kuntze Dapdap (Tag.)
Corallodendron sumatranum (Miq.) Kuntze Anii (Bisaya)
Erythrina holosericea Kurz Rarang (Bikol)
Erythrina hypaphorus Boerl. ex Koord.-Schum. Sublang (Abra)
Erythrina lithosperma Blume ex Miq. December tree (Engl.)
Erythrina lithosperma var. armata Miq.  
Erythrina lithosperma var. inermis Miq.  
Erythrina mysorensis Gamble  
Erythrina secundiflora Hassk.  
Erythrina subumbrans (Hassk.) Merr.  
Erythrina subumbrans var. aculeata Hassk.  
Erythrina subumbrans var. inermis Hassk.  
Hypaphorus subumbrans Hassk.  
Dapdap is a common name shared by Erythrina variegata and E. subumbrans.
Erythrina subumbrans (Hassk.) Merr. is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
CHINA: Chi guo ci tong.
INDONESIA: Dadap duri, Dadap rangrang (Sundanese), Dadap ri (Javanese), Dadap minyak, Dadap lesang (Sundanese), Dadap serep (Javanese).
LAOS: Tawng lan.
MALAYSIA: Dadap dorri, Dadap minyak, Dadap serep, Dedap batik, Cengkering.
MYANMAR: Ye-katit.
PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Tho:ng hla:ng.
THAILAND: Thonglang-pa, thong meet khut, Thong-lang.
VIETNAM: Vong hat da.

Gen info
- Erythrina is a genus of plants in the pea family, Fabaceae. It contains about 130 species distributed in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide.
- Collective names for the genus plants are coral tree and flame tree.
- Etymology: The genus name Erythrina derives from the Greek erythros, meaning :red", referring to the flower color of certain species.
(Not all species have bright red flowers.) (12)

Erythrina subumbrans is a tree, 12-15 m tall. Trunk up to 60 cm d.b.h., with robust prickles. Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate; stipules ovate, deciduous; petiole 10-12 cm, without prickles; petiolules ca. 7 mm; leaflets ovate-triangular, 10-15 cm × 7-10 mm, membranous, both sur­faces glabrous, lateral veins 7 on each side, obviously convex abaxially, base rounded or broadly cuneate, margin entire, apex acuminate. Raceme 7-10 cm. Flowers ca. 4 cm. Calyx campan­ulate, 2-lobed, silky hairy. Standard scarlet, elliptic, 5-6 cm, apex obtuse, shortly clawed; wings obovate; keels subequal to wings. Ovary glabrous. Legume ca. 15 × 2.5 cm, with seeds re­stricted to apical part, indehiscent. Seeds 1-3, black. (Flora of China)

Erythrina subumbrans is a deciduous, medium-sized tree, 5-25 m tall, crown spreading, trunk reaching 60 cm in diameter, armed with stout prickles, under cultivation mostly unarmed. Petiole 8-16 cm long, thickened at the base; stipules orbicular, small, rachis 2-5 cm long, leaflets ovate-triangular-rhomboid, terminal one largest and 8-16 cm × 6-14 cm, base rounded or cordate, apex acuminate, glabrous, petiolule up to 7 mm long; stipels stipitate, cup-like, glandular. Inflorescence racemose, in the upper leaf axils, 5-23 cm long, brownish-tomentose, peduncle 3-15 cm long. Flowers many, arranged in groups of 3, pedicel 2- 3 mm long, in fruit up to 6 mm long, calyx campanulate, 1-1.5 cm long, splitting open up to halfway down, tomentose, yellow-green; standard broadly elliptical, 2.5-4 cm × 2-3 cm, shortly clawed, scarlet, at base inside with numerous white stripes, wings as long as the keel or slightly longer, about 1.5 cm long, pale red with a blackish upper margin; stamens 3-3.5 cm long, monadelphous but vexillary stamen slightly shorter than other ones and only connate for the lower 0.5-1 cm, pinkish red.= Fruit a flat, curved pod, 10-15 cm long, on a slender stalk 3-4.5 cm long, lower part seedless and 2-2.5 cm wide, upper part thicker, 1-1.5 cm wide and 1-5-seeded, septate between the seeds, dehiscent. Seed ellipsoid, 7-18 mm × 5-11 mm, smooth, dull black. (2)

- Native to the Philippines.
- Also native to Andaman Is., Assam, Borneo, China, Fiji, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya,, Maluku, Myanmar, Samoa, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam.
- Grows primarily in the wet tropical biome.
- Low and medium elevation thickets, open locations and secondary forests, etc.

- Study of twig and root extracts of Erythrina subumbrans isolated a new pterocarpan, erythinocarpan (1), along with 27 known compounds. (see study below) (3)
- Study of bark isolated three new erythrina alkaloids: (+)-10,11-dioxoerythratine (1), (+)-10,11-dioxoepierythratidine (2), and (+)-10,11-dioxoerythratidinone (3), and a new pterocarpan, 1-methoxyerythrabyssin II (4), together with seven known pterocarpans, erythrabyssin II, erybraedin A, erystagallin A, erycristagallin, erythrabissin-1, eryvarin A, and hydroxycristacarpone, three flavanones, 5-hydroxysophoranone, abyssinone V, and lespedezaflavanone B, three triterpenes, sophoradiol, soyasapogenol B, and lupeol, and one isoflavanone, vogelin C. (4)
-Study of stems led to isolation of one triterpene, soyasapogenol B, two pterocarpans, erybraedin A and erystagallin A, and one flavanone, 5-hydroxysophoranone. Study of bark isolated vogelin C and lespedezaflavanone B. (see study below) (8)
- Study of hexane and Ch2Cl2 extracts of Erythrina subumbrans stems and E. stricta roots isolated six pterocarpans, one flavanone, one isoflavone, two alkaloids, five triterpenes, six steroids and alkyl trans-ferulates. Sophoradiol (15), a mixture of stigmast-4-en-3-one (19) and stigmasta-4,22-dien-3-one (20), lupeol (21), cycloeucalenol (22), a mixture of 3β-hydroxystigmast-5-en-7-one (23) and 3β-hydroxystigmast-5,22-dien-7-one (24) and melilotigenin C (25) were first isolated from the genus Erythrina. (see study below) (10)

- Studies have suggest antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antiplasmodial, antimycobacterial, cytotoxicity properties.

Parts used
Leaves, bark, roots.


- In Java, steamed young leaves eaten in salads.

- In the Philippines, bark decoction drunk for afflictions of the spleen.
- In Indonesia, poultice of pounded bark applied for fever. Poultice of pounded young leaves used for post partum hemorrhage, menorrhagia and for relief of jaundice. Leaf juice used as eye wash. Decoction of leaves used for cough. In Malaysia, bark juice drunk to relieve cough, and bark poultice applied simultaneously. Vinegar infusion of bark rubbed on the body for vomiting after childbirth. (
- In Indonesia, leaves used for treatment of rheumatism, stomach aches, asthma, dysentery, contact dermatitis, eczema, and skin infections. (
- In Usada, Bali, dadap serap leaves are used for wound healing. (9)
- Fodder / Meal: Used as fodder but may cause sterility and death when consumed by rabbits. In western Samoa, a 5%  leucana meal and 5% dried and ground dapdap leaves used as starter diets in chickens, with resultant weight gains.
- Ritual / Ornamental: In
Papua New Guinea, used in ritual ceremonies.
- Wood: Used for canoe and raft building.
- Agroforestry: Used as shade tree. In Indonesia, used as live support for betel, pepper, and vanilla vines. In Malaysia, used as live support for yams; in Myanmar and India, for betel and pepper vines.

Antidiabetic / Antimicrobial / Flavonoids / Twigs and Roots:
Study of twig and root extracts of Erythrina subumbrans isolated a new pterocarpan, erythinocarpan (1), along with 27 known compounds. The compounds were evaluated for antidiabetic, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. Compounds 3, 8, 8, and 22 showed α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 of 13.4, 24.5, 29.0, and 12.8 µM, respectively. Compound 2 showed α-amylase inhibitory activity with IC50 of 67.6 µM. Compounds 22 and 24 inhibited glycation activity with IC50s of 36.9 and 40.5 µM, respectively. From cell based assays, compound 27 showed highest ability to induce glucose consumption (IC50 29.1 µM) and glucose uptake (2.8-fold) and to inhibit NO production (IC50 52.5 µM) without cell toxicity. Compound 9 showed antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi with MIC range of 2-4 µg/mL. (3)
Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts of leaves of E. subumbrans and its topical use in the treatment of skin infections using disc diffusion agar assays. The EE of leaves showed most significant activity against Staphylococcus epidermis with MIC of 0.5 µg/mL. Extract concentrations of0.5, 1 mg, 5 mg, and 10 mg/mL showed inhibition zones of 1.83, 3.42, 5.17 and 8.00 mm. The EE of leaves also showed significant activity against Candida albicans with MIC of 0.5 µg/mL. The extract yielded alkaloids, flavonoid, saponin, and triterpenoids. (5)
Effect on Nicotine Withdrawal / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of leaves extract of Erythrina subumbrans on nicotine withdrawal syndrome and ß2 nAChRs expression in rats' ventral tegmental area (VTA). Results showed E. subumbrans at dosage of 100 mg/kbw may decrease some somatic sings (rearing, body scratching, front paws licking, and penile licking) of nicotine withdrawal syndrome.    (6)
Antidiabetic / Reduction of MDA and 8-OHDG / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of Erythrina subumbrans extract on blood glucose and MDA levels in diabetic Wistar rats induced by high-fat diet and combination of nicotinamide (100 mg/kbw) and streptozotocin (40 mg/kbw). Metformin was used as reference drug. The leaf extract at 200mg/200gBW orally significantly lowered and normalized blood glucose levels and decreased serum MDA and 8-OHdG levels. Results suggest promising hypoglycemic action and antioxidant effects starting at 200mg/200gBW dose. (7)
Antimalarial / Bark and Stems: Study of stems led to isolation of one triterpene, soyasapogenol B, which exhibited moderate antiplasmodial activity (10.0µM) against K1 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Study of bark isolated vogelin C and lespedezaflavanone B which possessed antiplasmodial activity against K1 with IC50s of 6.6 and 9.1 µM, respectively. Study of stems isolated two pterocarpans, erybraedin A and erystagallin A, and one flavanone, 5-hydroxysophoranone, which exhibited antiplasmodial activity against K1 with IC50s of 8.7, 9.0 and 5.3 µM, respectively. (8)
Anti-Inflammatory / Cream Formulation / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of cream formulation of dadap serap leaves in rats. Results showed a 20% cream formulation of ethanol extract of leaves showed anti-inflammatory effect in carrageenan-induced rat model. (9)
Antiplasmodial / Antimycobacterial / Cytotoxicity / Stems: Study of hexane and Ch2Cl2 extracts of Erythrina subumbrans stems and E. stricta roots isolated six pterocarpans, one flavanone, one isoflavone, two alkaloids, five triterpenes, six steroids and alkyl trans-ferulates. Compound 8 (hydroxysophoranone) exhibited highest antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum (IC50 2.5 µg/mL). Compound 8, 5 (erystagalliin A), 7 (erycristagallin) and 10 (erysubin F) showed antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis (MIC 12.5 µg/mL).  For cytotoxicity, erybraedin A (2) showed highest activity against NCI-H187 and BC cells (IC50 2.1 and 2.9 µg/mL, respectively, while compound 10 exhibited highest activity against KB  cells (IC50 4.5 µg/mL.) (10)
Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated Dadap leaves macerated in 96% ethanol for in vivo anti-inflammatory assay with paw edema method in doses of 200, 300, and 400 mg/kbw in Wistar rats. All extract doses produced similar anti-inflammatory activity as compared to diclofenac sodium as positive control. The 200 mg/kbw dose was most efficient. (11)

- Wild-crafted.
- Ornamental cultivation.

May 2023

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Erythrina subumbrans / Dinesh Valke / Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic / click on image or link to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Erythrina subumbrans - Inflorescence / Siddarth Machado / Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International / click on image or link to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Erythrina subumbrans - Flower closeup / Dinesh Valke Dumbleton / Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic / cliick on image or link to go to source page / flickr

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Erythrina subumbrans / Synonyms / Plants of the World Online

Erythrina subumbrans (PROSEA) / Undang A Dasuki / Pl@ntUse

Antidiabetic and antimicrobial flavonoids from the twigs and roots of Erythrina subumbrans (Hassk.) Merr.
/ Piyaporn Phukhatmuen, Pronphimol Meesaul, Virayu Suthiphasilp, Surat Laphookhieo et al / Heliyon, 2021; 7(4): e06904 / DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06904
Erythrina Alkaloids and a Pterocarpan from the Bark of Erythrina subumbrans
/ Thitima Rukachaisirikul, Phongsak Innok, Apichart Suksamrarn / Journal of Natural Products, 2008; 71(1): pp 156-158 /
DOI: 10.1021/no070506w
Antimicrobial Activity of Dadap Serep (Erythrina subumbrans (Hassk.) Merr.) Leaves Extract / Diah Tri Utami, Fitrianingsih, Indri Maharini / Journal of Chemical Natural Resources, 2019; 1(1): pp 45-49
The Effects of Erythrina subumbrans (Hassk.) Merr. Leaves Extract on Nicotine Withdrawal Syndrome and 2 nAChRs Expression in The Ventral Tegmental Area of Rats / Nurvita Risdiana, Rina Susilowati, Eti Nurwening Sholikhah, Ginus Partadiredja / BIO Web of Conferences, 2022; 40: 01002 /
DOI: 10.1051/bioconf/20224901002
Erythrina subumbrans leaves extracts improved Diabetic condition by reducing MDA and 8-OHDG on Rat model  / Anton Bahtiar, Anggi Aprilia Prawidi, Syifa Amalia, An'nisa Safitri, Babay Asih Suliasih  /RJPT:  Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 2022; 15(12) / DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00953 / eISSN: 0974-360X / pISSN: 0974-3618
Antimalarial compounds isolated from plants used in traditional medicine
/  Joanne Bero, Michel Frederich, Joelle Quetin-Leclercq / JPP: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 2009; 61(11): pp 1401-1433 /
DOI: 10.1211/jpp.61.11.0001
Effectiveness of Cream from Dadap Serep (Erythrina subumbrans (Hassk.) Merr.) Leaf Extract as Anti- inflammatory / I Gusti Agung Ayu Kusuma Wardani, Ni Nyoman Wahyu Udayani et al / Jurnal Ilmiah Medicamento, 2023; 9(1) / DOI: 10.36733/medicamento.v9i1.5257
Biological Activities of the Chemical Constituents ofErythrina stricta andErythrina subumbrans / Thitima Rukachaisirukul, Amporn Saekee, Chatchana Tharibun, Sudarut Watkkuolham, Apichart Suksamrarn / Archives of Pharmacal Research, 2007; 30: pp 1398-1403 / DOI: 10.1007/BF02977363
IN VIVO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF DADAP LEAVES (Erythrina subumbrans (Hassk.) Merr) / Ni Luh Kade Arman Anita Dewi, Ni Luh Sintya, Maria Malida Vernandes Sasadara et al / International Journal of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 2021; 9(1) / DOI: 10.24843/IJBB.2021.v09.i01.p03
Erythrina / Wikipedia

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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