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Family Annonaceae
Duhat-matsing
Polyalthia suberosa (Roxb.) Thwaites.

CORKY DEBBAR TREE
An luo

Scientific names Common names 
Polyalthia suberosa (Roxb.) Thwaites. Baling-manok (Tag.) 
Uvaria suberosa Roxb. Duhat-duhatan (Tag.,)
  Duhat-matsing (Tag.)
  Duyat-nasi (Pamp.)
  Lanutan (Tag.)
  Tagputagpuan (Tag.)
  Munat (Ilk.) 
  Polyalthia (Engl.)
  Corky debbar tree (Engl.)
   
Lanutan is a common name shared by: (1) Kalai, Alphonsea arborea (2) Malaatis, Dasymaschalon clusiflorum (3) Kalimatas, Phaenthus ebracteolatus, and (4) Duhat-matsing, Polyalthia suberosa.
Polyalthia suberosa (Roxb.) Thwaites is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BANGLADESH: Jam debharu, Ham jam.
CHINESE: Mei wei mu, Shin guan yin, Lao ren pi, Ji zhao shu, An luo.
INDIA: Gua koli, Dudduga chettu.
THAI: Klueng klom.

Botany
Duhat-matsing is a shrub or small tree growing to a height of 2 to 4 meters. Leaves are oblong to narrowly oblong-obovate, 5 to 11 centimeters long. Flowers are solitary, pale-yellow, about 1 centimeter long or less, on slender pedicels 1 to 2 centimeters long. Sepals and petals are slightly hairy. Fruits are numerous, ovoid or globose, 4 to 5 millimeters long, purple, fleshy and edible.

Distribution
- In the Philippines, common in thickets at low and medium altitudes in Luzon (Cagayan to Laguna) and Mindanao.
- Also occurs in India, China, Malaysia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Thailand and Vietnam.

Constituents
• Study yielded an azaanthracene alkaloid, kalasinamide, from the stems of P. suberosa., together with the known N-trans-feruloyltyramine and N-trans-coumaroyltyramine.
• Study isolated two new 2-substituted furans from the stems of P. suberosa.
(2)
• Leaves contain alpha- and beta-amyrin, lupeol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol. Stems and leaves contain triterpene, suberosol, which have shown anti-HIV replication activity. Stem bark yields alkaloids, oxostephanine and lanuginosine, which has shown antibacterial activity.
• Proximate analysis of fruit yielded (%) moisture 64.76 ± 391, carbohydrate 4.25 ± 0.43, total sugar 4.3 ± 0.34, protein 1.96 ± 0.35%, ascorbic acid 15.72 ± 1.11, reducing sugar 0.57 ± 0.17, non-reducing sugar 3.77 ± 0.63, phenol 0.9 ± 0.08, acid content 0.19 ± 0.01, carotenoid 128.49 ± 8.9. (15)
• Micronutrient analysis of fruit yielded (mg/100 g) iron 4.19, sodium 25.09, potassium 845.76, calcium 62.72, copper 1.33, manganese 5.35, and zinc 2.25. (15)

Properties
• Anti-HIV replication activity and antibacterial activity.
• Adaptogenic.
• Bark considered febrifuge, astringent, analgesic, and laxative.
• Seed considered diuretic, soporific, and sedative.

Parts utilized
Fresh roots, bark.

Uses
Edibility
- Ripe fruits are edible.
Folkloric
- Decoction of fresh roots used as abortifacient.
- In Bangladesh, bark used as febrifuge analgesic, and laxative.
- In the tropics, latex used as crude filling for tooth cavities. (8)
- In Andhra Pradesh, India, decoction of grounded root bark mixed with fruits of Piper longum used for puerperal fever. (12)

Studies
Furans / Antiviral Activity: 2-substituted furans from Polyalthia suberosa: Two new 2-substituted furans, 1-(2-furyl)pentacosa16,18-diyne and 23-(2-furyl)tricosa-5,7-diynoic acid, were isolated from the stems of P. suberosa. These compounds, with kalasinamide, N-trans-feruloyltyramine and N-trans-coumaroyltyramine showed anti-HIV activities. (2)
Anti-HIV Activity: Anti-AIDS Agents, 9. Suberosol, a New C31 Lanostane-Type Triterpene and Anti-HIV Principle from Polyalthia suberosa: In the course of searching for anti-HIV agents, a new triterpene, suberosol, was isolated and studied for anti-HIV activity. Results showed anti-HIV replication activity in H9 lymphocytes cell in vitro. (Publ.1993) (3)
Cytotoxic: Study isolated four new styryl-lactones, crassalactones A-D together with seven known compounds from an extract of leaves and twigs of PC. Cytotoxic evaluation against mammalian cancer lines were done on all the new isolates. (4)
Natural Excipient: Study showed the extracted mucilage from the leaves of Polyalthia suberosa is non-toxic, with a potential as a suspending agent, binding agent and pharmaceutical adjuvant. (6)
Antibacterial / Analgesic / Antidiarrheal / Cytotoxic / Leaves: A methanol extract of leaves showed moderate antibacterial activity against Vibrio cholerae, Shigella sonei, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermis, and Streptococcus saprophyticus. It produces significant inhibition in acetic induced writhing in mice comparable to diclofenac. It showed an antidiarrheal effect on castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. Also, it exhibited high level of cytotoxicity in brine shrimp lethality bioassay. (8)
Nutrient Analysis: Fruits yield a protein content of 1.9% . Micronutrient analysis yielded per mg/100g: iron 4.19, sodium 25.09, potassium 845.76, calcium 62.72, copper 1.33, manganese 5.35, zinc 2.25. (9)
• Mucilage / Non-Toxic / Leaves: Study results extracted mucilage from leaves of Polyalthia suberosa (PMS) is non toxic, has the potential as a suspending agent, as binding agent and as pharmaceutical adjuvant. (11)
• Antioxidant / Analgesic / Antidiarrheal / Bark and Fruits: Study screened hydromethanol extracts of leaves, bark and fruits of Polyalthia suberosa for antioxidant, analgesic, and antidiarrheal activity. Bark extracts showed maximum reducing activity, higher than standard reference ascorbic acid. All parts showed analgesic activity with significant (p<0.05-0.01) inhibition of writhing reaction in a dose-dependent manner. In castor oil-induced diarrhea, there was statistically significant (p<0.05) inhibition of frequency of diarrhea, the bark showing 69.52% inhibition wile the fruits showed 63.81% inhibition at 400 mg/kg dose level. Overall, bark and fruit extracts showed strong antioxidant potential with excellent analgesic and antidiarrheal activity. (13)
• Analgesic / CNS Depressant / Bark and Leaves: Study of crude hydromethanolic extracts of bark and leaves showed remarkable cytotoxic, CNS depressant (open field and hole cross tests) and analgesic (acetic acid-induced writhing test for visceral pain and tail immersion tests for central activity) potential. The extract inhibited both mechanisms of pain suggesting potential as a narcotic analgesic. Alkaloids, flavonoids, tannin, saponin, carbohydrates and steroids present may be responsible for the observed effects. (14)


Availability
Wild-crafted. 

Last Update January 2017

IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph / Polyalthia suberosa (Roxb.) Benth. & Hook.f. / © Digital Flora of Karnataka Digital Flora of Karnataka by Herbarium JCB is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. / click on image to go to source page / Herbarium JCB
IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration / Polyalthia suberosa (Roxb.) Thw. / Collected by www.plant.ac.cn / Click on image to go to source page / Zhiwutong

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
An azaanthracene alkaloid from Polyalthia suberosa. / Tuchinda P et al / Phytochemistry. 2000 Apr;53(8):1079-82.
(2)
2-substituted furans from Polyalthia suberosa / Planta medica / 2001, vol. 67, no6, pp. 572-575
(3)
Anti-AIDS Agents, 9. Suberosol, a New C31 Lanostane-Type Triterpene and Anti-HIV Principle from Polyalthia suberosa / Hui-Ying Li, Nan-Jun Sun et al / J. Nat. Prod., 1993, 56 (7), pp 1130–1133 /
DOI: 10.1021/np50097a017
(4)
Cytotoxic Styryl-Lactones from the Leaves and Twigs of Polyalthia crassa / J. Nat. Prod., 2006, 69 (12), pp 1728–1733 / DOI: 10.1021/np060323u
(5)
Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary / C. P. Khare
(6)
Isolation, Characterization and Pharmaceutical evaluation of the mucilage from Polyalthia suberosa leaves / Sunil Mistry, P.K.Biswal, B.Mishra, S.Sahoo / International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol.2, No.2, pp 1455-1459, April-June 2010
(7)
Polyalthia suberosa (Roxb.) Thwaites (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(8)
PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL, ANTI-BACTERIAL, ANALGESIC, ANTI-DIARRHOEAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF POLYALTHIA SUBEROSA LEAVES / Sm. Faysal Bellah, Firoj Ahmed, A.A. Rahman, I.Z. Shahid and S.M. Moazzem Hossen* / IJPSR (2012), Vol. 3, No 5, 2005
(9)
Nutrient Analysis of Some Selected Wild Edible Fruits of Deciduous Forests of India: an Explorative Study towards Non Conventional Bio-Nutrition / Ajay Kumar Mahapatra, Satarupa Mishra, Uday C Basak and Pratap C Panda / Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology 4(1): 15-21, 2012
(10)
Polyalthia subserosa / Synonyms / The Plant List
(11)
Isolation, Characterization and Pharmaceutical evaluation of the mucilage from Polyalthia suberosa leaves / Sunil Mistry*, P.K.Biswal, B.Mishra, S.Sahoo / International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol.2, No.2, pp 1455-1459, April-June 2010
(12)
New traditional phytotherapy for gynecological disorders among the tribes of Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, India / B. Sandhya Sri, S. B. Padal and B. Ramakrishna / Advance Journals, 2014; Vol 1; Issue 2, Article ID: PM14 01; Pages: 1-7
(13)
STUDY OF PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTIOXIDANT, ANTIDIARRHOEAL AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES OF HYDROMETHANOL EXTRACTS OF POLYALTHIA SUBEROSA (ROXB.) / *Zubair Khalid Labu, Munira Makshud, Samiul Basir, Jalal Uddin, Sukdeb Biswas, and 6Nadia Sultana / Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research 2 (3) 2013, 52-63

(14)
Phytochemical and Pharmacological Investigations of Polyalthia suberosa Roxb. / Rajib Mazundar et al / International Journal of Innovative Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 4(7), 20`6, pp 693-708.
(15)

Nutrient Analysis of Some Selected Wild Edible Fruits of Deciduous Forests of India: an Explorative Study towards Non Conventional Bio-Nutrition / Ajay Kumar Mahapatra, Satarupa Mishra, Uday C Basak and Pratap C Panda / Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology 4(1): 15-21, 2012

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