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Family Moraceae
Kamansi
Artocarpus camansi Blanco
BREADNUT

Scientific names  Common names 
Artocarpus camansi Blanco Camansi (Bis.) 
  Dalangian (Bis.)
  Dulugian (Bis.)
  Kamansi (Tag.) 
  Kamongsi (Bis.,Tag.) 
  Pakak (Ilk.) 
  Ugod (Tag.)
  Breadnut (Engl.) 
Dr. Quisumbing's Medicinal Plants of the Philippines' compilation lists Artocarpus camansi as Kamansi and Artocarpus altilis (Artocarpus incisa) as Rimas or Breadfruit. Kamansi differs from rimas in that the fruit is seeded and the male inflorescence is club-shaped and the leaves have more divisions. The folkloric uses are similar.
Artocarpus camansi Blanco is an accepted name. No synonyms are recorded for this name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
FRENCH: Chaitagnier, Chataigne, Abre a pain.
HAWAIIAN: Ulu.
INDONESIAN: Kluwih.
MALAYA: Kelur, Kulor, Kulur, Kuror.
MARQUESAS: Mei kakano.
NEW GUINEA: Kapiah, Kapiak.
SPANISH: Castaña, Pana de pepitas (Puerto Rico).
VIETNAMESE: Sake.

General info
- The genus Artocarpus (Moraceae) comprise about 50 species of evergreen and deciduous trees; an important source of edible fruit, timber and folkloric medicinal use.
-
Breadnut (kamansi, Artocarpus camansi) is often confused with its close relative breadfruit (A. altilis), but is distinguished by its large spiny fruits with little pulp and numerous large, light brown seeds.
- Artocarpus camansi has often been considered to be a form of seeded breadfruit, Artocarpus altilis. Breadfruit, however, is a separate species that originated from its wild-seeded ancestor, breadnut. (5)

Botany
Kamansi is a large tree, 10 to 15 meters high, similar in habit to Artocarpus altilis. Leaves are large, leathery, ovate to oblong-ovate, 40 to 60 centimeters long, 25 to 45 centimeters wide, with deeply incised margins, 4- to 5-lobed. Male spikes are cylindric, greenish-yellow, 15 to 25 centimeters long, and 3 to 4 centimeters in diameter. Fruit is green, ovoid or somewhat rounded, 10 to 15 centimeters long, 7 to 12 centimeters in diameter, with a spiny surface, with little pulp. Tips of the anthocarps are narrowly conical, prolonged, 5 to 8 millimeters long, and 5 thick or less at the base. Seeds are numerous, light brown, ovoid or somewhat rounded, about 2.5 centimeters in diameter.

Kamansi differs from rimas (A. altilis) in the following: Fruit is seeded, the anthocarps are narrowly conical and prolonged, male inflorescence is club-shaped, stigmas are elongated, and the leaves have more divisions.

Distribution
- Native to New Guinea, possibly the Moluccas (Indonesia) and the Philippines.
- Grows in tropical regions, especially in seacoast areas.
- Reported from Cagayan and Laguna Provinces in Luzon; Leyte and Cebu.
- Occasional in the Quezon province.
- Cultivated in Manila.

Constituents
- Artocarpus species are rich in phenolic compounds including flavonoids, stilbenoids, arylbenzofurons and Jacalin, a lectin.

- Oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acid comparing well with melon seeds, soybean and groundnut oil.
- Seeds are a good source of minerals and contains more niacin than other nuts. A 100 g edible portion yields amino acids--methionine 3.2 g, leucine 2.6 g, isoleucine 2.4 g, and serine 2.1 g, comprising 50% of 14 amino acids analyzed. (5)
- A lectin was isolated and purified from the seeds of A. camansi Blanco. It was a complete lectin since it agglutinated erythrocytes without trypsin treatment and addition of metal ions. (11)
- A dichlormethane extract of leaves yielded friedelinol (1), squalene (2), ß-sitosterol (3), stigmasterol (4), and phytol (5), while stems yielded polyprenol (6), cycloartenol (7) and cycloartenol acetate (8).(see study below) (13)
- Study of essential oil of leaf, stem-bark and nuts yielded a total of 32, 11, and 26 compounds representing 99.09%, 99.45%, and 99.89% of oils, respectively. Main constituents were: (leaf oil) m-xylene 36.82%, myristaldehyde 25.36%, phytol 6.21%, ethyl benzene 7.25%; (stem-bark) m-xylene 61.32%, o-xylene 18.76%, and ethyl benzene 16.21%; (nut oil) lanosteryl acetate 23.9%, olean-12-en-3y acetate 23.63%, 24-methylene cycloartenol 17.57%, m-xylene 15.26%, and squalene 2.85%. (see study below) (15)
- Nutrient analysis per 100 g yielded: (Principle) energy 103 Kcal, carbohydrates 27.12 g, protein 1.07 g, total fat 0.20 g, cholesterol 0 mg, dietary fiber 4.9 g; (Vitamins) folates 14 µg, niacin 0.900 mg, pyridoxine 0.100 mg, thiamin 0.110 mg, vitamin A 0 IU, vitamin E 0.10 mg, vitamin K 0.5 µg; (Electrolytes) sodium 2 mg, potassium 490 mg; (Minerals) calcium 17 mg, copper 0.084 mg, iron 0.54 mg, magnesium 25 mg, manganese 0.060 mg, phosphorus 30 mg, selenium 0.6 µg, zinc 0.12 mg; (Phytonutrients) ß-carotene 0 µg, crypto-xanthin-ß 0 µg, lutein-zeaxanthin 22 µg. (16)
- Nutrient composition of breadnut seeds per 100 g of edible portion (dry weight basis) yielded: water 56.0-66.2%, protein 13.3-19.9 g, carbohydrate 76.2 g, 6.2-29.0 g, calcium 66-70 mg, potassium 380-1620 mg, phosphorus 320-360 mg, iron 8.7 mg, magnesium 10.0 mg, niacin 8.3 mg, sodium 1.6 mg. (From Ragone (2003) based on McIntoch & Manchew (1993), Ne- gron de Bravo et al. (1983), and Quijano & Arango (1981). (18)
- In a study various leaf extracts, ethanol extracts showed highest total phenolic and flavonoid content, 47.46 mg GAE/g dried extract and 79.094 mg CE/g dried extract, respectively. (see study below) (22)

Properties
- Vulnerary, laxative.
- Grown for their large, nutritive seeds.
- Studies have shown cytotoxic, biosorbent, anti-dermatitis, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antimalarial properties.

Parts used
Leaves and fruit.

Uses
Nutritional
- Fruits, particularly the young ones, are boiled and eaten as a vegetable.
- Seeds are rich in starch, eaten boiled or roasted.
- Ripe fruit is sweet. and flavorsome.
- Seed is rich in protein, low in fat; rich in minerals, especially niacin.
Folkloric
- Breadfruit is laxative. Heated up, the slices are used for furuncles.
- Decoction of leaves used for baths in rheumatism.
- Tree latex used for hernia in children, applied with a belt or truss.
- Decoction of bark used for dysentery.
- Decoction of bark used as vulnerary.
- Latex massaged onto skin, for broken bones and sprains and bandaged on the spine are for sciatica.
- Crushed leaves used for thrush.
- In the Visayas, bark decoction used for dysentery.
- Diluted latex used for diarrhea, stomach aches and dysentery.
- Juice from stems of leaves for ear infections.
- In the West Indies, decoction of yellowing leaf used for high blood pressure and asthma.
- Tea also used for diabetes.

Others
- Wood: Lightweight, flexible, and easy to work with. Used for carving statues, bowls, fishing floats, etc. (5)
- Fuel: Fast burning wood.
- Repellent: Dried male flowers burned to repel mosquitoes and other flying insects. (5)

- Fodder: All parts of the mature and ripe fruits are edible and fed to pigs and other livestock. Breadnut is also an important food source for flying foxes and arboreal mammals in its native range. (10)

Studies
Infant Food Formulation: New product development studies have been carried out to formulate an infant food from breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) pulp and breadnut (A camansi) seeds to provide a nutritious and palatable alternative. (3)
Nutritional Composition of Breadnut Seeds: Study showed the proximate composition of seeds as: protein, 4.87%; fat, 3.48%; and carbohydrate, 26.11%; ash, 3.43%, crude fiber, 1.20%. Highest mineral content was phosphorus, 363 mg/kg; potassium, 325 mg/kg; and sodium, 248 mg/kg. Predominant essential amino acid were leucine, phenylalanine, arginine, isoleucine, and lysine - in decreasing order. Oil was rich in palmitic 21.4%, oleic 12.4% and linolenic acid 14.8%. Results suggest the breadnut seed can be used as composite flour and a source of edible oil for human consumption. (4)
Chemical Constituents / Cytotoxicity Against Cancer Cell Lines / Leaves: Dichlormethane extract of leaves yielded friedelinol (1), squalene (2), β-sitosterol (3), stigmasterol (4) and phytol (5), while the stems yielded polyprenol (6), cycloartenol (7) and cycloartenol acetate (8). (6)
Camansi Flour as Additive / Camanhon: Study produced fried Canton using an additive of Camansi flour from mature seeds with commercially used flour.
Compared with other staple starch crops, camansi is a better source of protein, comparable to sweet potato and banana, and a good source of iron, calcium, potassium, riboflavine and niacin. Results proved to be both nutritive and good tasting. (7)
Biosorbent for Methylene Blue / Peel: There has been an increase in the amount of dyes being disposed in wastewater or the natural ecosystem, seriously adding to environmental pollution. Study showed the oven-dried breadnut peel to be an effective and highly promising low-cost biosorbent for removal of methylene blue (MB). (8)
Blood Glucose Effect / Leaves: Study evaluated the antidiabetic effect of ethanol leaf extracts of Kluwih on mice using glucose tolerance test. EELK at doses of 50 and 100 mg/KBW showed antidiabetic effect better than 200 and 400 mg/KBW. Increasing the doses showed antagonistic effect, with ability to increase blood glucose levels. (9)
Anti-Contact Dermatitis / TNCB-Induced Contact Hypersensitivity: Study evaluated a hot water extract of A. camansi leaves on contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in mice using 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB). The extract exhibited significant activity against the swelling produced during 24h and 48h post-challenge. The activity could be due to a polysaccharide and/or glycoprotein constituent. Results suggest extract of A. camansi leaves might be an effective natural product to treat allergic contact dermatitis. (12)
• Triterpenes / No Cytotoxcicity Against Cancer Cell Lines / Mild Antibacterial Activity / Leaves: A dichlormethane extract of leaves yielded friedelinol (1), squalene (2), ß-sitosterol (3), stigmasterol (4), and phytol (5), while stems yielded polyprenol (6), cycloartenol (7) and cycloartenol acetate (8). Cytotoxicity was tested using sulforhodamine B assay against human cancer cell lines: lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, stomach adenocarcinoma AGS cells, colon adenocarcinoma HT29 cells and prostate cancer PC3 cells. Compounds 1,7, and 8 showed no cytotocxicity to the cancer cell lines. Friedelinol has showed antibacterial activity with no antifungal activity. Cycloartenol has exhibited moderate and selected antimicrobial activity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. (see study below) (13)
Cytotoxicity Against Human Cancer Cell Lines / Leaves: Study evaluated crude extracts and fractions from Artocarpus camansi, Premna odorata and Gliricidia sepium against selected human cancer cell lines using MTT assay. P. odorata leaves and bark hexane fractions and Artocarpus leaves were all highly cytotoxic against selected human cancer cell lines (HCT116, MCF-7 and A549). (14)
Antibacterial / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the volatile composition of leaf, stem-bark and nut of Artocarpus camansi. The leaf oil showed low activity against Shigella flexeri, Epidermic Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (EMRSA16 and 17), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (DRPA), and moderate activity against Salmonella typhi. Stem-bark showed moderate activity toward E. coli and S. typhi. Nut showed activity toward E. coli, S. flexneri, S. typhi and drug resistant isolates of P. aeruginosa. (see constituents above) (15)
Proximate Composition / Phenolic Content / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the proximate composition, mineral and total phenolic contents (TPCs) and antioxidant capacity of core, pulp, and seed of A. camansi. Pulp yielded the highest ash (1.47%) and protein (1.29%) contents, and core had highest moisture (88.6%) content. On antioxidant testing, DPPH inhibition was in the order of seed > pulp > core. Study for TPC yielded 7.88 -22.1 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g for methanol extract and 1.69 - 5.22 mg GAE/g for water extract. Results suggest potential benefits for the food and health industries. (17)
Antidiabetic / Bark: Study evaluated an ethyl acetate extract of bark for antidiabetic activity against male Swiss Webster mice model using glucose tolerance tests. Study isolated ß-amyrin acetate. Results showed a decrease in blood glucose levels. Fraction Group B showed greater blood sugar lowering than fraction of group P and ethyl acetate extracts. (19)
• Effect of Storage Environment and Time on Seed Viability: Study investigated the effect of methods and period of storage on viability of breadnut seeds using refrigerator and open shelf storage in two different seasons. Results indicate breadnut seeds cannot be stored for up to a week using study methods. (20)

• Low Cost Adsorhent for Methylene Blue / Core: Study investigated the adsorption characteristics of methylene blue on core of breadnut. Oven-dried A. camansi core was found to be very effective in removing MB compared to reported fruit biomasses. Thermodynamic studies showed the adsorption process was both spontaneous and exothermic. Results suggest great potential as a low cost adsorbent for removal of MB. (21)
• Antioxidant / Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated total ethanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane extracts from leaves for phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant capacity by DPPH scavenginhg activity, and antibacterial activity using well diffusion assay. Ethanol extracts showed highest total phenolic and flavonoid content, 47.46 mg GAE/g dried extract and 79.094 mg CE/g dried extract, respectively. Ethanol extract showed lowest IC50 of 73.16 on DPPH scavenging. The ethanol extract showed highest antibacterial activity with highest inhibition against S. aureus and E. coli. (22)
• Antimalarial / Plasmodium berghei / Leaves: Study evaluated the in vivo antiplasmodium activity of methanol extract of leaves in mice (Mus musculus) Balb/c infected with Plasmodium berghei. Parameters observed were parasite growth and parasite inhibition. Results showed lowest parasite growth (1.636%) and largest parasite inhibition (72.83%) at dose of 100 mg/kg BB. An extract is considered to have positive antimalarial activity if it can reduce parasitemia by 30% or more. Results suggest the dose of 100 mg/kg BB of methanol extract of leaves has potential activity as antimalarial. (23)
• ß-Sitosterol / Antidiabetic / Bark: Study evaluated various solvent extracts and fractions of A. camamsi. ß-sitosterol was a pure isolate of fraction B. Study for antidiabetic activity showed extract of n-hexane, fraction group A and fraction group B can lower blood sugar levels of male Swiss Webster mice. Group fraction of B showed highest lowering of blood glucose compared to n-hexane extract and group A. (24)

Availability
- Wild-crafted.
- Seeds in the cybermarket.

Updated September 2019 / September 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Breadnut / Camansi: An Alternative to Chestnut / Rico Magda / Food Marketing & Technology, Dec 2009
(2)
Artocarpus: A review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology / U B Jagtap and V A Bapat / Journal of Ethnopharmacology / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2010.03.031
(3)
FORMULATION OF AN INFANT FOOD BASED ON BREADFRUIT (ARTOCARPUS ALTILIS) AND BREADNUT (ARTOCARPUS CAMANSI) / F C Nelson-Quartey et al / ISHS Acta Horticulturae 757: I International Symposium on Breadfruit Research and Development
(4)
Nutritional composition of breadnut seeds (Artocarpus camansi) / R O Adeleki and O A Abiodun / African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 5(11), pp. 1273-1276, 4 June, 2010
(5)
Artocarpus camansi (breadnut) / Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry
(7)
CAMANHON: The Production of Fried Canton with the use of Camansi (Artocarpus Camansi) Flour as an Additive / Source: Korina Christine F. Reyes / Department of Science and Technology, Regio II--Central Luzon.
(8)
Breadnut peel as a highly effective low-cost biosorbent for methylene blue: Equilibrium, thermodynamic and kinetic studies / Linda B.L. Lim, Namal Priyantha, D.T.B. Tennakoon, Hei Ing Chieng, Muhammad Khairud Dahri, Montri Suklueng / Arabian Journal of Chemistry, On Line Jan 2014 / DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2013.12.018
(9)
ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY FROM ETHANOL EXTRACT OF KLUWIH'S LEAF (Artocarpus camansi) / Marianne Marianne, Yuandani Yuandani, Rosnani Rosnani / Jurnal Natural, Vol 11, No 2, 2011
(10)
Artocarpus camansi / World AgroForestry
(11)
Isolation and Partial Characterization of a Lectin from the Seeds of Artocarpus camansi Blanco / Occeña, Irving V.; Mojica, Elmer-Rico E.; Merca, Florinia E. / Asian Journal of Plant Sciences; 2007; 6(5): pp 757-764 / DOI: 10.3923/ajps.2007.757.764 (12)
Effect of the hot water extract of Artocarpus camansi leaves on 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB)-induced contact hypersensitivity in mice. / Salonga RB1, Hisaka S, Nose M. / Biol Pharm Bull. 2014; 37(3): pp 493-497 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1248/bpb.b13-00738
(13)
Chemical constituents of Artocarpus camansi
/ Po-wei Tsai, Kathlia A. De Castro-Cruz, Chien-Chang Shen, Consolacion Y. Ragasa / Pharmacognosy Journal, March 2013; 5(2): pp 80-82 · / DOI: 10.1016/j.phcgj.2012.06.001
(14)
Cytotoxic activity of crude extracts and fractions from Premna odorata (Blanco), Artocarpus camansi (Blanco) and Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) against selected human cancer cell lines / Ourlad Alzeus G. Tantengco, Sonia D. Jacinto / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, December 2015; Volume 5, Issue 12: pp 1037–1041 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.011
(15)
Essential Oils of the Leaf, Stem-Bark, and Nut of Artocarpus camansi: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis and Activities against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria / Iniobong Ante, Sherifat Aboaba, Hina Siddiqui & M. Iqbal Choudhary / Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants, Volume 22, 2016 - Issue 3
(16)
Nutrient Analysis / USDA Database
(17)
Proximate composition, mineral and total phenolic contents, and scavenging activity of breadnut fruit (Artocarpus camansi) / M.S. Rabeta and M.J. Nor Syafiqah / J. Trop. Agric. and Fd. Sc. 44(1)(2016): 1 – 7
(18)
Artocarpus camansi (breadnut) Moraceae (mulberry family) / Diane Ragone / Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry
(19)
ß-Amyrin acetate of ethyl acetate extract of the bark plant artocarpus camansi and its antidiabetic activity
/ Rosnani Nasution , Marianne and Hijjatin Nur / Der Pharma Chemica, 2015, 7(6): pp 71-78
(20)
Effect of storage environment and period on viability of breadnut (Artocarpys canabsu Blanco) seeds to rainforest agroecology, Nigeria / Journal of Agricultural and Crop Research, May 2018; Volume 6, Issue 1: pp 1-6 / doi: https://doi.org/10.33495/jacr_v6i1.18.102
(21)
Artocarpus camansi Blanco (Breadnut) core as low-cost adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue: equilibrium, thermodynamics, and kinetics studies / Linda B L Lim, Namal Priyantha, Hei Ing Chieng and Muhammad Khairud Dahri / Journal: Desalination and Water Treatment, 2016; 57(12) / https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2015.1007088
(22)
Evaluation of the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of breadnut (Artocarpus camansi Blanco) leaf extracts / Yoanes Maria Vianney*, Natasha Amanda, Kelvin Pieknell, Calvin Wijaya Johan and Popy Hartatie Hardjo / Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources. June 2018; 9(2): pp 151-159
(23)
Antiplasmodium Activities of Keluwih (Artocarpus camansi) Methanol Leaf Extracts im the Mencit (Mus musculus) Balb/c Infected with Plasmodium berghei / Dmitry Arditya Harsya Priangga et al / Prisma Sains: Jurnal Pengkajian Limu Dan Pembelajaran MIPA IKIP Mataram
(24)
β-SITOSTEROL FROM BARK OF ARTOCARPUS CAMANSI AND ITS ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY / Rosnani Nasution, Marianne, Muhammad Bahi, Nurdin Saidi, Isni Junina / Proceedings of The 5th Annual International Conference Syiah Kuala University (AIC Unsyiah) 2015 In conjunction with The 8th International Conference of Chemical Engineering on Science and Applications (ChESA), 2015 September 9-11m Banda Aceh, Indonesia

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