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Family Lauraceae
Cassytha filiformis Linn.
Wu gen teng

Scientific names Common names
Calodium cochinchinense Lour.  Barutbarut (Ilk.) 
Calodium cochinchinensis Lour.  Kauad-kauad (Tag.)
Cassytha americana Nees  Kauad-kauaran (Tag.)
Cassytha aphylla Raeusch.  Kauat-kauat )Tag.)
Cassytha archboldiana C.K.Allen  Kawad-kawaran (Tag.) 
Cassytha brasiliensis Mart. ex Nees  Kawat-kawat (Sul.)
Cassytha corniculata Burm.f.  Malabohok (Bik., Bis., Tag.)
Cassytha cuscutiformis F.Muell.  Uauaken-irang (Iv.)
Cassytha dissitiflora Meisn.  Wawaken-irang (Iv.)
Cassytha filiformis Linn. Alambrillo (Span.)
Cassytha guineensis Schumach. & Thonn. Devil's twine (Engl.)
Cassytha lifuensis Guillaumin Dodder Laurel (Engl.)
Cassytha macrocarpa Guillaumin False dodder (Engl.)
Cassytha novoguineensis Kaneh. & Hatus. Love vine (Engl.)
Cassytha paradoxae Proctor Woe vine (Engl.)
Cassytha senegalensis A.Chev.  
Cassytha timoriensis Gand.  
Cassytha zeylanica Gaertn.  
Volutella aphylla Forssk.  
Kawad-kawaran is a common name phonetically shared by three species of plants: (1) The more commonly known, Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) (2) Malabohok, kauad-kawaran (Cassytha filiformis), and (3) kauad-kauaran, laua-laua, Paspalum conjugatum.
Cassytha filiformis L. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
AFRICA: Nooienshaar, Vrouehaar, Luangaiala, Omoniginigin, Otetebilete.
ARABIAN: Kesatha, Kuskhut, Kushuta.
CHINESE: Wu tou cao, Wu ye teng, Luo wang teng, Kume, Wu-kentaso (Taiwan), Wu gen teng.
FIJIAN: Boa lawa-lawa.
FRENCH: Liane parasyte, Liane d'amite, Liane fifelle, Liane san fin, Mouttare, Cord a violon, Vermicelli.
HAWAIIAN: Kauna'oa pehu, Kauna'oa malo-lo, Kauna'oa uka, Kauna'oa, Malolo, Pololo, Dodder.
INDIA: Acatha valli, Akas-valli, Akashvel, Akaswel, Achtsjabuli, Amar beli, Akas bel.
INDONESIA: Akar penhalasan, Rambut puteri, Tali puteri, Sangga langit, Mas semasan, Gumi guaruci.
JAPAN: Suna-zuru, Ninashi-kanda.
MALAYSIA: Chemara puteri, Tali puteri, Pangkal mati pucuk hidup, Chemara batu, Rambut puteri.
MALDIVES: Velanbuli.
MOROCCO: Irudakangka.
PALAU: Techellel achul.
PUERTO RICO: Benjaro dorado, Cabellos del-angel, Fideilo, Fideos, Live vine Tante ai el aire.
SPANISH: Alambrillo, Bejuco dorado, Bejuco fideo, Fideos, Tente en el air.
SRI LANKA: Aga-mula-neti-wel.
SOUTH AMERICA: Cipo de chumbo Liane amitie, Bejurco dorado, Corde a viaion, Liane ficell.

Gen info
- Cassytha is a genus of about 30 species, mostly occurring in Australia, a few in South Africa, with one pantropical species, Cassytha filiformis. (9)
- They are parasitic vines with small haustoria (infectious, adhesive structures that withdraw nutrients from host organs). (9)
- In Hawai'i, two Cuscuta species and C. filiformis are sometimes confused, in fact, sometimes referred to by the same name, kauna'oa. (9)

Kauad-kauaran is a parasitic vine, adhering to the host by suckers. Stems are very long, slender, brown, yellowish brown or greenish, twining and matted together, with numerous branches forming a web of leafless cords over grasses or bushes. Flowers, borne on short spikes, are small and stalkless. Perianth segments are unequal, the outer small and rounded, and the inner ones much longer, oblong or oval in shape. Stamens are 9, in 3 rows, anthers are all 2-celled, 2 outer rows introrse, the inner row extrorse. Ovary is superior, 1-celled. Fruits is nearly spherical, smooth, fleshy and about 7 millimeters in diameter.

- Grows in thickets, especially near the sea, in dry regions and sometimes inland up to an altitude of 500 meters, throughout the Philippines.
- Parasitic on various coarse grasses, shrubs, etc.
- Pantropic.

- Contains an alkaloid (0.1 %) identical to laurotetanine, described under Litsea sebifera.
- Bioassay-directed fractionation isolated three new compounds, including an aporphine alkaloid, cassyformine (4), an oxoaporphine alkaloid, filiformine (8), and a lignan, (+)-diasyringaresinol (10), along with 14 known compounds. (see study below) (1)
- Study of an alkaloid extract yielded three major aporphine alkaloids: actinodaphnine, cassythine, dicentrine and were evaluated for in vitro activity on T. brucei brucei. (see study below)  (2)
- Study yielded three new compounds: two alkaloids, cassyformine and filiformine, and a lignan along with 14 known compounds.
- Study estimated total alkaloidal content to be around 0.11 to 0.43%. A Brazilian species yielded 13 alkaloids. In Taiwan, a methanolic extract yielded aporphine alkaloids: cathafiline, cathaformine, actinodaphnine, N-methylactinodaphnine, predicentrine, and ocoteine.  (11)
- Study of aerial parts yielded alkaloids, tannins, cathetic tannins, gallic tannins, and mucilage.
- Phytochemical screening of methanol extracts of leaves yielded saponins, steroids, and tannins. GC-MS analysis of butanol fraction yielded 8 saponin compounds viz.,
9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester (1), 5-stigmastan-3, 6-dione (2), didodecyl phthalate (3), eicosanoic acid, methyl ester (4), hexatriacontane (5), campesterol (6), cholestan-7-one, cyclic 1,2-ethanedienyl acetal (7), and cholan-24-oic acid, 3,7,12-tris (acetyloxy)-,methyl ester, (3α, 5β, 7α, 12α). (8)  (20)
- Ethyl acetate extract of leaves yielded carbohydrates, saponins, glycosides, sterols, balsams, terpenes, resins, alkaloids, and volatile oils, with absence of tannin phlobotannins, and anthraquinone. (33)
- Bioassay-directed fractionation of methanol extract of fresh herb isolated six aporphinoid alkaloids viz., actinodaphnine (1), N-methylactinodaphnine (2), cathafiline (3), cathaformine (4), predicentrine (5), and ocoteine (6). (see study below) (34)
- GC-MS for essential oil showed an oil that was sesquiterpenoid in nature, with principal components of bicyclogermacrene (12-26%), spathulenol (27-36%), and ß-caryophyllene (5-10%). (36)

- Sweet and mildly bitter tasting, astringent, diuretic, antiphlogistic , anticontusion, laxative, cooling, tonic, and alterative.
- Laurotetanine can cause cramps, and in sufficient doses, death.
- Studies have shown anti-platelet aggregation, anti-trypanosome, anti-cancer, vasorelaxant, antibacterial, anti-hemorrhagic, anticonvulsant, diuretic properties.

Parts utilized
· Entire plant.
· Collect from May to October.
· Rinse, cut into pieces, dry under the shade, compress before using.

· In Micronesia, fruit is used as premasticated food for infants.
- Leaves occasionally eaten as vegetable.
· Little therapeutic use in the Philippines.
· In Manila, decoction of fresh plant used to hasten parturition, and to prevent hemoptysis.
· Sanskrit writers describe it as a tonic and alterative, and its power of increasing the secretion of semen.
· Used for constipation, dysentery, hemoptysis, epistaxis, acute conjunctivitis, furuncles, cold, fever, and headaches.
· Decoction of dried material used for nephritic-edema, urinary lithiasis and infections, hepatitis, hepatic fever among infants, cold-fever among infants, headaches, multiple furuncles.
· Poultice of pounded fresh material applied to furuncles; or, decoction applied as external wash to same.
· In India, the powdered plant, mixed with sesame oil, used to strengthen the hair. Whole plant used as alterative in bilious disorders and piles. Stems used for epilepsy.
· Used by Brahmins, in a mixture of butter and ginger, for cleansing of inveterate ulcers
· In Maritius, decoction used for rachitic infants.
· In African folk medicine, used to treat cancer and African trypanosomiasis.  (2)
· In southern Africa, used for washing the hair, destroying vermin, and promoting hair growth.
· In Senegambia, used for urethritis.
· In Cochin-China used as antisyphilitic.
· In Thailand, decoction of plant parts used as potion or bath for treatment of jaundice.
· In Palau, whole plant of C. filiformis is mixed with bark of Terminalia cata (scarlet macaw) and copra, crushed together, and the juice squeezed out and drunk for gonorrhea. (9)
· In Benin, used for the treatment of hemorrhages.  (17)
· In Thakar tribe of Maharashtra use infusion of aerial roots and pendulous branches for snake bites.   (23)
· In the Bahamas, Cassytha filiformis (Love Vine) is one of four main plants that serve as ingredients for love potions, the others viz., Bourreria ovata (Strong Back), Tabebuia bahamensis (Five Finger), and Diospyros crassinervis (Stiff Cock). (24)
· In Comorian folkloric medicine of Morocco, seeds, leaves, and vine used for treatment of inflammation, intestinal worms, dermal problems, dental problems, diabetes, influenza, headaches, stomach aches, malaria, cough, asthma, and diarrhea. (37)
Magic: Plant use for sorcery.
Thatch root construction: Vine used for thatched roof construction in Papua New Guinea.
Hair use: Sap from stems used as shampoo and hair conditioner.
Ornamental: Used in Hawaii as human ornament and in decorative garlands and lei. (9)
Dye: Dye extracted from vine used as coloring agent to provide a brown or black color for fabrics.
Paper: Paste of whole plant used for paper making. (26)

Chemical Constituents / Antiplatelet aggregation activity: Bioassay-directed fractionation isolated three new compounds, including an aporphine alkaloid, cassyformine (4), an oxoaporphine alkaloid, filiformine (8), and a lignan, (+)-diasyringaresinol (10), along with 14 known compounds. Among the isolates, cathafiline (1), cathaformine (2), actinodaphnine (3), N-methylactinodaphnine (5), predicentrine (6) and ocotein (7) exhibited significant antiplatelet aggregation activity. (see constituents above) (1)
Aporphines / Anti-cancer / Anti-trypanosome: Alkaloids from Cassytha filiformis and related aporphines: Antitrypanosomal activity, cytotoxicity, and interaction with DNA and topoisomerases: Study showed isolated aporphines to possess in vitro cytotoxic properties and exhibited interactions with DNA which may partly explain the effect on cancer cells and on trypanosomes. (5)
Aporphines / Anti-cancer / Anti-trypanosome: Study isolated six aporphines, and analyzed the in vitro cytotoxic properties of four on different cancer and non-cancer cell lines. Major alkaloids - actinodaphnine, cassythine and dicentrine showed antitrypanosomal properties in vitro. (2)
Ocoteine / Alpha1 Adrenoceptor Blocking Agent: Study isolated ocoteine and was found to be an alpha-1 adrenoreceptor blocking agent in rat thoracic aorta. At high concentrations, it also blocks 5-HT receptors. (3)
Vasorelaxant / Alkaloids / Flavonoids:
Study yielded two aporphine alkaloids, isofiliformine and cassythic acid along with 22 known compounds from the whole herb of Cf. Cassythic acid, cassythine, neolitsine and dicentrine showed potent vasorelaxing effects on precontracted rat aortic preparations.
Toxicity Studies / LD50: Study suggests the aqueous extract of C. filiformis administered at normal therapeutic doses is not likely to produce severe toxic effects on some organs or hematologic and biochemical parameters in rats. Acute toxicological evaluation of the plant extract showed an LD50 greater than 500 mg/kbw. (6)
Comparative Study of Diuretic Activity: Study evaluated aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Cuscuta reflexa and Cassytha filiformis for diuretic activity in Wistar rats. Results showed significant diuretic activity and marked increase in Na and K excretion. The diuretic effect was higher with the C filiformis extract. (7)
Antioxidant: Study evaluated the antioxidant study of alcoholic extracts of Cuscuta reflexa and Cassytha filiformis. Both ethanolic extracts neutralized the activities of radicals and inhibited the peroxidation reactions. C. reflexa showed greater in vitro antioxidant activity and contained more polyphenol contents. (12) Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of various extracts of C. filiformis based on radical scavenging activity using DPPH assay. The methanolic extract showed good antioxidant activity compared with standard BHT (butylated hydrotoluene). (40)
Analgesic / Antipyretic: An alcohol extract of leaves was evaluated for analgesic and antipyretic activity. The extract showed significant reduction of elevated body temperature in rat when compared to standard Paracetamol and produced significant increase in reaction time in in hot plate and tail flick methods. Results suggested antipyretic and analgesic activities. (13)
Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant / Acute Toxicity Study: Study evaluated a methanolic extract in male Wistar rats against hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 and olive oil. Analysis yielded polyphenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, and saponins. Acute toxicity study showed safety up to 5000 mg/kbw. Results showed hepatoprotective activity with histopathological changes partially or fully prevented in treated animals. (14)

Antibacterial / Urogenital Gram-Negative Bacteria: Various extracts from aerial parts were evaluated for antibacterial properties. The extracts from aerial parts, except the n-hexane extract, were active against gram negative bacterial. Results suggest active antibacterial ingredients comparable or more potent than gentamicin against clinical bacteria isolates studied. (15)
Antioxidant / Anticonvulsant:
Study evaluated an ethanolic extract on antioxidant enzymes in rat brain after induction of seizures by MES and PTZ.. In both models, antioxidant enzymes, catalase and lipid peroxidation in rat brains were decreased due to seizure but significantly restored by administration of the ethanol extract. The antioxidant activity might be due to antioxidant properties which delays the generation of free radicals in MES and PTZ induced epilepsy. (16)
Anti-Hemorrhagic / Pro-Coagulant Effect: Study evaluated four species of medicinal plants sold by herbalists in South Benin for treatment of bleeding. C. filiformis showed pro-coagulant effect with a 31% reduction of plasma re-calcification time (PRT), an action different from the classical pathway of blood coagulation. (17)
Antibacterial / Staphylococcus aureus: Study showed the water extract of Cleistopholis patens was inactive against strains of S. aureus whereas Cassytha filiformis extracts were active against the organism. Study showed no synergism and suggests the two plant extracts should not be combined.  (19)
Effect of Brain Neurotransmitters / Effect on Seizures: Study investigated the effect of ethanolic extract of Cassytha filiformis on biogenic amines concentrations in rat brain after induction of seizures by MES and PTZ. In the MES model, there was significant restoration of decreased levels of brain monoamines. In the PTZ model, the was significantly increased monoamines in the forebrain of rats. The increased monoamines in rat brain may decrease the susceptibility to MES and PTZ induced seizure in rats. (21)
Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity:
Petroleum ether and methanol extracts exhibited hepatoprotective properties in a paracetamol induced model of hepatotoxicity on Wistar albino rats. (23)
Toxicity of Defatted Extract:
Defatted ethanolic extract of CF has shown potential antihypertensive activity on a previous study. This study evaluated the acute and delayed toxicities of the extract on 90 mice. Animal body weight, food and water intakes were affected. Results suggest the defatted ethanolic extract of C. filiformis is toxic and produces delayed toxicity. (24)
Cytotoxic Aporphine Alkaloids:
Purification of a cytotoxic alkaloid extract of Cassytha filiformis isolated four known aporphine alkaloids: neolitsine, dicentrine, cassythine (=cassyfiline) and actinodaphnine. The alkaloids were tested for cytotoxic activities on cancer and non-cancer cell lines in vitro. Neolitsine was the most active against HeLa and 2T2 cells with IC50s of 21.6 and 21.4 µM, respectively. Cassythine and actinodaphnine showed highest activity against Mel-5 with IC50s of 24.3 and 25.7 µM, respectively, and HL-60 with IC50s of 19.9 and 15.4 µM, respectively. (27)
Microbiocide / Anti-HSV-2 Infection / Invention:
Invention relates to a microbiocidal composition of various extracts of aerial parts of P. glabrum, R. mysorensis, T. paniculata, C. reflexa, T. crenulata, S. myrtina and Cassytha filiformis along with excipients and carriers for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, particularly HSV-2 type infections. (28)
Gelsemium Poisoning / Mistaken Identity:
This study reports on three cases of acute gelsemium poisoning after consumption of a homemade herbal soup believed to be made from Cassytha filiformis. Presenting symptoms were dizziness, nausea, generalized weakness, and bilateral ptosis about one hour after ingestion. C. filiformis is generally regarded as non-toxic. The report highlighted the potential public health threat posed by picking and consumption of wild plants, and the wrongful identification and attribution of plant names. (29)
Antihypertensive / Antioxidant:
Study evaluated the blood pressure lowering effect of C. filiformis extract in male Sprague-Dawley rats and its correlation with antioxidant activity. Hypertension was induced with a combination of prednisone, salt for two weeks and oxidative stress-associated hypertension. Results showed significant antihypertensive effect. The 5m/kbw dose showed best blood pressure lowering effect. There was no correlation seen between NO increase and blood pressure lowering effect. (30)
Reversible Hepatotoxicity / Effect on Propofol Induced Sleep:
Study evaluated the liver toxicity of Cassytha filiformis extract and its reversibility in mice. Half of the animals were used to study the effect of CF on sleep time on propofol induced sleep (sleep onset time/SOT and duration of sleep/DOS). the C. filiformis extract shortened SOT and prolonged DOS significantly. ALT was increased due to toxicity of CFE, however, the ALT/ALP decreased and liver weight increased gradually after the extract treatment was discontinued. Results suggest the C. filiformis extract is toxic to the liver but the toxicity is reversible depending on doses. (31)
Polyherbal Combo / No Effect on Diarrhoegenic Bacterial Infections:
Study evaluated the rationale behind combining the extracts from fruits of Alchornea cordifolia and Pterocarpus santalinoides and aerial parts of Cassytha filiformis in the traditional treatment of diarrhoegenic bacterial infections. The extracts exhibited activity against all the test isolates (Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus). Results showed C. filiformis has antagonistc and indifference activities in combination with either P. santalinoides or A. cordifolia. The combination of extracts is countnerproductive and invalidates any claim for positive results in the management of diarrhoegenic bacterial infections. Study showed that combining various plants extracts do not necessarily yield a higher therapeutic effect. (32)
Hematological Effects / Leaves:
Study evaluated an ethyl acetate extract of Cassytha filiformis leaves for photochemical components and toxicity. The oral LD50 of the extract in mice was above 5000 mg/kbw. Oral administration for 28 days did not case any variation in Hb, MCH, and MCHC. Mean MCV was significantly reduced. Platelet counts were significantly (p<0.05) reduced in rats fed 500 to 1000 mg/kbw of extract. Neutrophil counts were also significantly reduced. Study suggests the EA leaf extract may contain biologically active principles that may boost the immune system through increase of defensive WBCs, although it causes adverse effects on platelets and neutrophil counts. (33)
Aporphinoids / Antiplatelet / Vasorelaxant:
Bioassay-directed fractionation of methanol extract of fresh herb isolated six aporphinoid alkaloids viz., actinodaphnine (1), N-methylactinodaphnine (2), cathafiline (3), cathaformine (4), predicentrine (5), and ocoteine (6). They showed potent inhibitory activity of rabbit platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid (AA), collagen and platelet-activating factor (PAF). Alkaloids 1 and 2 showed strong inhibition of aortic contraction induced by K+ and norepinephrine. (34)
Antibacterial / Urogenital Gram Negative Bacteria / Aerial Parts:
Study evaluated the antibacterial properties of extracts of aerial parts of C. filiformis. Gentamicin was used as reference drug. Methanol and hot-water extracts were effective against E. coli and P. aeruginosa, but showed no activity against P. mirabilis and Klebsiella spp. Activity may be due to phytoconstituents like alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, and terpenoids. Results suggest a potential for antimicrobial agents that may replace common antibiotics in use to combat against emerging resistant urogenital pathogens. (35)
Immunomodulatory / Anti-Inflammatory:
Study evaluated the potential immunomoduatory properties ex vivo of phenolic fraction of methanolic extracts of Cassytha filiformis and Piper borbonense. Results showed immunosuppressive effect on lymphocyte subpopulations. Most immunosuppressive activity was observed at doses of 25 for C. filiformis. An immunostimulant effect observed on granulocytes can suggest a possible anti-inflammatory potency. (38)
Effect of Oral Administration of Whole Plant Extract / Toxicity Study: Aqueous extract showed no effect on SGOT and SGPT, electrolytes, glucose level. and hematological parameters (Hb, WBC, RBC, PVC, platelets, and indices). Acute toxicological study of the plant extract showed an oral LD50 greater than 500 mg/kbw. Study suggests that at therapeutic doses, the extract is not likely to produce severe toxic effects on some organs, biochemical and hematological parameters. (39)


              Abuse and Plagiarism of the Compilation on Philippine Medicinal Plants Under the Guise of Fair Use

Updated March 2020 / August 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: PHOTO / File:Starr 010520-0082 Cassytha filiformis.jpg / Cassytha filiformis (fruits). Location: Kure Atoll, Inland / Forest & Kim Starr / Plants of Hawaii / 20 May 2001 Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license./ Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain / Illustration of Cassytha filiformis (Orig. Cassytha americana) / Flora Brasiliensis vol. 5 pt. 2 tab. 107 / 1866-1868 / Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius (1794-1868) / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Chemical Constituents from Cassytha filiformis II / Fang-Rong Chang, Ya-Chieh Chao et al / J. Nat. Prod., 1998, 61 (7), pp 863–866 / DOI: 10.1021/np970348g
Alkaloids from Cassytha filiformis and related aporphines: Antitrypanosomal activity, cytotoxicity, and interaction with DNA and topoisomerases / Hoet S, Stevigny C, Block S,Opperdoes F, Colson P, Baldeyrou B, Lansiaux A, Bailly C, Quetin Leclercq J / Planta Med., 2004 May; 70(5): pp 407-413 /
PMID: 15124084 / DOI: 10.1055/s-2004-818967
Pharmacological Evaluation of Ocoteine, Isolated from Cassytha filiformis, as an B1-Adrenoceptor Antagonist in Rat Thoracic Aorta / Ching-Wei Chang et al / The Japanese Journal of PharmacologyVol.73 , No.3(1997)pp.207-214
Vasorelaxing alkaloids and flavonoids from Cassytha filiformis
/ Tung-Hu Tsa et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2008, 71 (2), pp 289–291 / DOI: 10.1021/np070564h
Studies on Cassytha filiformis from Benin: isolation, biological activities and quantification of aporphines / J Quetin-Leclercq et al / Proceedings of Bioresources Towards Drug Discovery and Development, 2004
Effect of oral administration of aqueous whole extract of Cassytha filiformis on haematograms and plasma biochemical parameters in rats / Hausatu M. Babayi, Joseph, J. I. Udeme, Joseph A. Abalaka, Joseph I. Okogun, O. A. Salawu, David D. Akumka, Adamu, Sunday S. Zarma, Bulus B. Adzu, Sabo S. Abdulmumuni, Kolo Ibrahime, Baba B. Elisha, Samuel S. Zakariys, and Uford S. Inyang / Journal of Medical Toxicology, December, 2007, Vol 3, Number 4 / DOI 10.1007/BF03160930
Comparative Study of Cuscuta reflexa and Cassytha filiformis for Diuretic Activity
/ Sakshy Sharma, K K Hullatti et al / PHARMACOGNOSY RESEARCH, 2009; Volume 1, Issue 5: pp 327-330 /
Cassytha filiformis L. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Cassytha filiformis / Scot C. Nelson / Department of Plant and Environmental Protection Sciences / Plant Disease, July 2008, PD-42
Cassytha filiformis / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
Pharmacological Activities of Cassytha Filiformis: A Review
/ S. Mythili*, S. Gajalakshmi, A. Sathiavelu, T. B. Sridharan / Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research, 2011, 1(1): pp 77-83
Comparative antioxidant activity of Cuscuta reflexa and Cassytha filiformis / Sakshy, Sharma; kk., Hullatti; Kumar, Sachin; Brijesh, Tiwari kr. / Journal of Pharmacy Research;Jan2012, Vol. 5 Issue 1, p441
Screening of Antipyretic and Analgesic Potential of Ethanol Extract of Cassytha filiformis Leaves / Ram Kumar Sahu, Amit Roy, SaurabhKothiya, Anup Kumar Maurya, Rajesh Kumar / Research J. Science and Tech. 4(3): May-June 2012: 129-131.
Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Cassytha filiformis against CCl4 induced hepatic damage in rats
Bincy Raj, S.D. Jagadeesh Singh, Vimal John Samual, Soosamma John, Ayesha Siddiqua / Journal of Pharmacy Research, Volume 7, Issue 1 , Pages 15-19, January 2013
. / * R. Gandhimathi, 1A. Sreedevi, A. Saravana Kumar / International Journal of Pharmacological Screening Metholds, Vol 1 / Issue 1 / 11-15 / Home Page: www.ijpsmjournal.com
Phytochemistry and hemostatic properties of some medicinal plants sold as anti-hemorrhagic in Cotonou markets (Benin) / C. Dandjesso, JR. Klotoé, TV. Dougnon, J. Sègbo, J-M. Atègbo, F. Gbaguidi, L. Fah, B. Fanou, F. Loko and K. Dramane / Indian Journal of Science and Technology Vol. 5 No. 8 (August 2012)

Cassytha filiformis / Synonyms / The Plant List
Evaluation of the Combined Effects of Cassytha filiformis and Cleistopholis patens Against Some Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus by In Vitro Method / Adonu, C.C, Enwa, F.O., Anie C.O., Gugu T, Esimone C.O., Attama A.A / World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 2, Issue 6, 4249-4258
Quantitative determination of the saponin content and GC-MS study of the medicinal plant Cassytha liformis (linn.) leaves / Theresa Ibibia Edewor, Stephen Olugbemiga Owa, Adeola Opeyemi Ologan, Franklin Akinfemi / Journal of Coastal Life Medicine 2016; 4(2): 154-156 / doi: 10.12980/jclm.4.2016j5-210
IN VITRO EVALUATION OF EFFECT OF CASSYTHA FILIFORMIS L. EXTRACTS ON BRAIN NEUROTRANSMITTERS IN ALBINO RATS / *P. Govardhan, Jagdeesh Bandari, Suresh Bandari, K. Praveen Kumar / Journal of Science / Vol 1 / Issue 1 / 2011 / 21-25.
Love Potions of Andros Island, Bahamas / Susan A. McClure, W. Hardy Eshbaugh / J. Ethnobiol. 3(2): pp 149-156
Acute and Delayed Toxicity Study of Cassytha Filiformis Defatted Ethanolic Extract.
/ Armenia and Hercegovina, Gustinanda, Dian and Nur Salasa, Annisa and Yuliandra , Yori and Friardi, Friardi (2015) World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4 (10). pp. 155-162
Cassytha filiformis / Ken Fern: Tropical Plants Database / Useful Tropical Plants
Cytotoxic Aporphine Alkaloids from Cassytha filiformis / Stevigny Caroline, S Block, M C de Pauw-Gillet, Joëlle Quetin-Leclercq et al / Planta Medica, Dec 2002;  68(11): pp 1042-1044 / DOI: 10.1055/s-2002-35651
Microbiocides from plant extracts for protection against hsv 2 infection / Inventor: Swati Pramod Joshi, Smita Shrikant Kulkarni / WO2013164858A1 / WIPO (PCT)
Gelsemium Poisoning in a Family after Consumption of Cassytha Filiformis Linn. Collected in the Countryside / Pk Lam, Tts Au, Jks Leung et al / Hong Kong Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2015; 22: pp 60-63 / https://doi.org/10.1177/102490791502200110
Antihypertensive and antioxidant activity of Cassytha filiformis L.: A correlative study / Yori Yuliandra, A Armenia, Helmi Arifin / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, July 2017; 7(7): pp 614-618 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.06.007
Reversible Hepatotoxicity of Cassytha filiformis Extract: Experimental Study on Liver Function and Propofol-Induced Sleep in Mice / Yori Yuliandra, Armenia Armenia, Rahmad Arief, Mifta Hul Jannah, Helmi Arifin / Pharmacognosy Journal, 2019; 11(1): pp 69-74 / DOI:10.5530/pj.2019.1.13
Combinations of Alchornea cordifolia, Cassytha filiformis and Pterocarpus santalinoides in diarrhoegenic bacterial infections / Angus Nnamdi Oli, Monday Obaji, and Ifeoma Bessie Enweani / BMC Research Notes, 2019; 12, Article no 649
Effect of ethylacetate extract of Cassytha filiformis leaves on haematological variables in rats / Hausatu Babayi, Salawu, O.A., Udeme Joshua Josiah Ijah, Akumka D. David and Joseph .I Okogun / Malaya Journal of Biosciences, 2017; 4(1): pp 39-47
Antiplatelet and vasorelaxing actions of aporphinoids from Cassytha filiformis / Yang-Chang Wu, Fang-Rong Chang, Ya-Chieh Chao, Che-Ming Teng / Phytotherapy Research, 1998; 12(S1) / https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(1998)12:1+<S39::AID-PTR244>3.0.CO;2-O
IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ANTI BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS FROM CASSYTHA FILIFORMIS LINN AGAINST UROGENITAL CLINICAL GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA / Adonu Cyril.C, Esimone Charlse.O, Attama Anthony A and Ugwueze Mercy.C / IJPBS: International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, Apr-Jun 2013; 3(2): pp 99-107
The Essential Oils of Some Australian Cassytha Species (Lauraceae) / Joseph J Brophy, Robert J Goldsack and Paul L Forster / Journal of Essential Oil Research, 2009; 21(6) / https://doi.org/10.1080/10412905.2009.9700239
Ethnopharmacological Investigation of Five Plants Used in Comorian Folkloric Medicine / Said Hassane Soidrou, Nadjun Ahmed Mohamed, Abdellah Farah, Said Omar Said Hassane, Dalila Bousta / International Journal of Phytopharmacology, 2013; 4(4): pp230-236
7. Immunomodulatory Activity of Phenolic Fraction from Piper Borbonense and Cassytha FiliformisGrowing in Comoros Islands / Said H Soldrou, Dalila Bousta,, Mohammed Lachkar, Said O S Hssane et al / Chemistry: The Key to our Sustainable Future
Effect of oral administration of aqueous whole extract of Cassytha filiformis on haematograms and plasma biochemical parameters in rats / Hausatu Babayi, Joseph Udeme, Joseph Abalaka, Joseph Okogun, O. Salawu / Journal of Medical Toxicology, Aug 2009; 3(4)

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