Kayumanis is a small tree up to 3 to 6 meters in height. Leaves are 20 to 30 centimeters long, with 7 to 11 leaflets which are ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, 5 to 11 centimeters long. Panicles are 15 to 20 centimeters long, terminal, and in the upper axils. Flowers are greenish, white, fragrant, 5-parted, about 8 millimeters in diameter. Fruit is nearly spherical or ovoid, about 1 centimeter in diameter, whitish when mature.
- In forests, at low and medium altitudes, in Bontoc, Benguet, Pampanga, Batangas, Bataan, Laguna, Rizal, and Sorsogon Provinces in Luzon; and in Masbate, Basilan and Mindanao, ascending to 1,500 meters.
- Also endemic to Borneo.
- Cultivated in China, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Taiwan.
- Reported naturalized in China.
- Distillation of the leaves yield a colorless oil with a faint odor of anise or anethol.
- The volatile oil contains methyl clavicol.
- The chemical composition of the oil varies among individual plants, from almost pure methyl chavicol (estragol) to almost pure anethol. A minor component is anisaldelhyde.
- Analysis of aqueous extract yielded tannins and saponins.
- Study isolated a new cyclopeptide, clausenain.
- Essential oils from stems roots, leaves, fruits, and flowers yielded 4-methoxy-6-(2-propenyl)-1,3-benzodioxole. The main types of the compounds are aromatic hydrocarbons,alkane,olefin and fatty acids. (9)
- 100 kg. of fresh leaves yield 1.6 - 2 kg of oil. One ha estimates a possible essential oil yield of 350-750 kg per year.
- Leaves when crushed are aromatic.
- Alcoholic extracts have a strong anise-like odor.
- Oil extracted from the leaves is inactive, with a faint odor of anise or anethol.
- Study suggests hepatoprotective and antimicrobial properties.
Roots, leaves and fruits.
Culinary and nutrition
- Leaves used in preparing local dishes and beverages.
- Essential oil from the leaves considered a potential substitute of anise oil for the making of "anisado," a local alcoholic beverage.
- In the Philippines, decoction of roots and fruits used for cough with fever.
- Decoction of leaves used for nausea of pregnancy.
- Leaves are stuffed in pillows for its soporofic effect.
- Leaves used in baths for rheumatism.
- In China, the leaves and twigs are used for the treatment of dysentery and arthritis.
- Leaves also used to flavor cigarettes.
- Essential oil is a potential cheap source of natural anethol.
• Monoterpenoid Coumarins / Antifungal: Study isolated two new monoterpenoid coumarins: anisucumarin A and B. The EtOH extract of Clausena anisum-olens showed antifungal activity against C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei. Anisucumarin A and B failed to show detectable antifungal activity. (1)
• Octapeptide: Study isolated a new cyclic octapeptide, clausenain B, a phenylalanin-rich cyclic octapeptide. (2)
• Hekumarone: Study isolated a new O-terpenoidal coumarin, hekumarone, from the leaves and twigs. Coumarins are considered characteristic and distinguishable chemical markers for the Rutaceae family. (4)
• Insecticidal / Anisaldehyde: Anisaldehyde, a compound found in the essential oil of Clausena anisum-olens was tested for insecticidal activities against Acanthoscelides obtectus and Callosobruchus maculatus. It caused significant mortality in the two tested insects, the latter more susceptible than the former. (3)
• Antimicrobial: Study extracted a volatile oil from the nutlets of Clausena anisum-olenas. The major chemical compositions were 4-methoxy-6-(2-propenyl)-1,3- benzodioxole (47.07%), 1,2,3-trimethoxy-5-(2-propenyl)- benzene (8.25%), 2,6- dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)-pheno (7.17%), n-hexadecanoic acid (7.05%) and tricosane (4.95%). The volatile oil had strong inhibitory effect against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. (8)
• Choleretic / Hepatoprotective / Leaves: A previous study showed an ethanolic extract to possess a choleretic effect in mice. This study showed an ethyl acetate fraction with the highest choleretic and hepatoprotective effect in mice, inhibiting the increase of ALT, AST, and bilirubin levels. (12)