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Family Acanthaceae
Kolintang-violeta
Barleria cristata Linn.
VIOLETA, PHILIPPINE VIOLET

Scientific names Common names
Barleria alba Lodd. Kolintang-violeta (Tag.)  
Barleria ciliata Roxb.  Blue-bell barleria (Engl.)  
Barleria cristata L.  Ganges primrose
Barleria dichotoma Roxb.  Crested Philippine violet (Engl.)
Barleria indica L. ex T.Anderson  Philippine violet (Engl.)
Barleria laciniata Wall.   
Barleria lactea Desf. ex Steud.   
Barleria nepalensis var. microphylla Nees    
Barleria nuda Nees   
Barleria prinoides Nees   
Barleria venulosa Nees  
Violeta is a shared common name for two species of plants: (1) Kolintang-violeta (Barleria cristata Linn.) and (2) Violeta   (Viola odorata Linn.), sweet violet.    
Barleria cristata L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ASSAMESE: Jhinili.
BENGALI: Janti.
FRENCH: Gueule de loup.
HINDI: Vajra danti.
ORIYA: Koilekha.
SPANISH: Violeta.
TAMIL: Semmulli.
TELUGU: Tellanilambari.

Botany
Kolintang-violeta is an erect, unarmed, branched ornamental shrub, 1 to 3 meters high. Branches are sparingly hairy. Leaves are oblong to elliptic, 4 to 10 centimeters long, pointed at the tip and somewhat hairy beneath. Flowers are borne singly or in pairs, and terminal or in the upper axils of the leaves. Bracteoles are linear. Two outer sepals are green, ovate-lanceolate, nearly 2 centimeters long, persistent, and laciniately toothed. Corolla is 6 to 7 centimeters long, slender-tubed, winged above; limb is 4 to 5 centimeters in diameter, violet or nearly white, or streaked with violet and white.

Distribution
- Widely cultivated ornamental hedge plant.
- Also occurs in India, China, and Malaya.

Constituents
- Phytochemical screening of crude extract of leaves yielded amino acids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, proteins, phenolic groups, saponins steroids, tannins, and terpenoids. (9)
- Three phenylethanoid glycosides viz; (desrhamnosylacteoside) (1), (acteoside) (2) and (poliumoside) (3) were isolated and identified from the callus cultures of Barleria cristata. (6)
- Study of bark extracts yielded yielded a new flavonoid compound, 6-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside-3,7,3'-O-trimethylated-8- hydroxyquercetin, together with known flavonoids flavonoids 6- O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside 3-methoxy quercetin, quercetagetin, tamarixetin, gossypetin and quercetin. (See study below) (8)
- Leaf and bark extracts yielded terpenoids, anthraquinones, alkaloids, flavonoids, and saponins. (see study below) (14)
- Study of organic extracts of whole plants of B. cristata isolated 4-hydroxy-trans-cinnamate derivatives (1-3) and a triterpene, namely oleanolic acid (4).
(15)
- Study of aerial parts yielded a new iridoid glycoside, barlupulin C methyl ester (1) together with two known phehylethanoid glycosides, poliumoside and decaffeoylacteoside, (2 and 3) and three known phenolic glycosides, protocatechuic acid 4-O-β-glucoside, vanillic acid 4-O-β-glucoside, and leonuriside A (4-6). (see study below) (18)

Properties
- Considered antidotal.
- Studies have suggested antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic properties.

Parts used
Roots, leaves, seeds.

Uses
Folkloric
- Seeds used as antidote for snake bites.
- Roots and leaves used to reduce swellings.
- Infusion of roots and leaves used for coughs.

- In India used for treatment of cough.
- Elsewhere, used for toothaches, anemia and inflammatory disorders.

Studies
Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves:
Methanol extract of leaves of Barleria cristata was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity. The effect was compared to the activity of indomethacin and cyproheptadine as reference standard. Results revealed BC possesses significant anti-inflammatory activity. (1)
Study of aqueous extract of BC leaves exhibited anti-inflammatory activity with significant dose-dependent inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema, prostaglandin activity, vascular permeability. (2)
Phytochemicals / Antioxidant Activity:
Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, phenols and tannins in the ethanol and aqueous extracts of BC. The 50 % ethanol extract of leaves showed significant antioxidant activity probably from the occurrence of secondary metabolites. (3)
Antioxidant:
In the ORAC antioxidant assay, a methanolic extract of Barleria cristata, J. procumbens, and S. auriculara exhibited antioxidant activity with ORAC units of 3.1-3.9. (4)
Hepatoprotective / Leaves:
Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of leaves for hepatoprotective activity in a CCl4-induced liver damage model in male Wistar albino rats. Results showed hepatoprotective activity which was attributed to alkaloids and flavonoids. The extract did not show any mortality up to a dose of 2000 mg/kbw. (5)
Anti-Diabetic / Seeds:
Study evaluated alcoholic extracts of dried seeds of Barleria cristata for hypoglycemic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Results showed significant blood glucose reduction. (7)
Antibacterial / Flavonoids / Bark:
Study evaluated various extracts for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus mutans and Escherichia coli. An ethanolic extract exhibited the largest zone of inhibition against the tested bacteria. Study yielded a new flavonoid compound, 6-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside-3,7,3'-O-trimethylated-8- hydroxyquercetin, together with known flavonoids flavonoids 6- O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside 3-methoxy quercetin, quercetagetin, tamarixetin, gossypetin and quercetin. Gossypetin 8-methyl ether showed the highest antibacterial activity. (8)
Toxicity Study / Hypoglycemic Effect:
Study of ethanolic leaf extract revealed the non-toxic nature of B. cristata. A 400 mg/k dose brought an effective hypoglycemic activity in wistar albino rats. (10)
Anti-Inflammatory / Radical Scavenging Activity:
Study of a methanol extract of Barleria cristata leaves exhibited significant anti-inflammatory against carrageenan induced paw edema in rats and prostaglandins inhibitory activity in mice and radical scavenging activity in in vitro methods by DPPH and NO radicals. (11)
Cytotoxic / Antioxidant / Leaf and Bark:
Study investigated various solvent extracts of B. cristata for cytotoxic and antioxidant activities. Leaf and bark extracts yielded terpenoids, anthraquinones, alkaloids, flavonoids, and saponins. Extracts were tested for cytotoxic activity using Brine shrimp lethality assay. The majority of extracts showed dose dependent activity. Methanol extract of both leaf and bark showed highest activity at 94% and 83%, respectively. The methanol leaf and bark extract showed highest nitric oxide radical scavenging activity, with the bark extract showing more potency (>80%). Methanol and acetone extract of both leaf and bark showed significant cytotoxic and antioxidant activities. (14)
Antihyperglycemic / Leaves:
Study investigated the antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effect of ethanolic leaf extracts of B. cristata in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant reduction of blood glucose (P<0.05) in diabetic rats. The antidiabetic effect may be through potentiation of pancreatic secretion of insulin or increase of glucose uptake by muscle cells. (16)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Mosquitocidal Potential: Compared to leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesized AgNP showed higher toxicity against An subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and C. tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 values of 12.46, 13.49, and 15.01 µg/mL, respectively.
Study showed B. cristata-fabricated AgNPs are a promising and eco-friendly tool against young instar populations of mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance. (17)
• Iridoid and Phenylethanoid Glucosides / Aerial Parts: Study of aerial parts yielded a new iridoid glycoside, barlupulin C methyl ester (1) together with two known phehylethanoid glycosides (2 and 3) and three known phenolic glycosides (4-6). (see constituents above) (18)


Availability
Wild-crafted.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update January 2017

Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
IMAGE SOURCE / Modified / PD / File:Barleria spp Blanco1.214-original.png / Flora de Filipinas / Franciso Manuel Blanco (OSA), 1880-1883 / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of Barleria Cristata leaves by in vivo and in vitro methods / Manoh Gambhire M et al / The Internet Journal of Pharmacology. 2009 Volume 7 No 1

(2)
Antiinflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Barleria cristata leaves / M N Gambhire et al / PHARMACOGNOSY, 2009 | Volume : 1 | Issue : 3 | Page : 220-224
(3)
In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Barleria cristata L. Leaves / K Amutha and Victor Arokia Doss /
(4)
Part 1: Antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of Thai plants in the family Acanthaceae.
/ Panarat Charoenchai, Srunya Vajrodaya, Winai Somprasong, Chulabhorn Mahidol, Somsak Ruchirawat, Prasat Kittakoop, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Bangkok, Thailand. / Planta Medica, 11/2010; 76(16):1940-3. / DOI:10.1055/s-0030-1250045
(5)
IN-VIVO HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF Barleria cristata L. ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACTS AGAINST CCl4 INDUCED HEPATIC INJURY IN WISTAR RATS / P Balaji*, G Kishore and Yogendra Verma / Pharmacie Globale (IJCP) 2013, 4 (04)
(6)
PHENYLETHANOID GLYCOSIDES FROM BARLERIA CRISTATA L. CALLUS CULTURES / A. M. A. Abd El-Mawl1, A. S. Ahmed, Z. Z. Ibraheim1 and L. Ernst / Bull. Pharm. Sci., Assiut University, Vol. 28, Part 2, December 2005, pp. 199-204.
(7)
Screening for anti-diabetic activity of the ethanolic extract of Barleria cristata seeds / Ranjit Singh*, P. H. Rajasree and C. Sankar / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACY & LIFE SCIENCES, 3(10): Oct., 2012
(8)
Antibacterial activity of Barleria cristata bark extracts / Josline Y. Salib, Nabila H. Shafik, Helana N. Michael, Emad F. Eskander / Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 9(3): 2156-2159, 2013
(9)
Barleria cristata Linn.: Phytochemical Screening and HPTLC Analysis / Rajasekaran Narmadha and Kanakasabapathi Devaki / International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 2012, 3(7).
(10)
Toxicological evaluation and oral glucose tolerance test of ethanolic leaf extract of Barleria cristata L. in wistar albino rats / R. Narmadha, K. Devaki / Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol. 2013; 2(6): 742-746doi: 10.5455/2319-2003.ijbcp20131213
(11)
Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging activity of an aqueous extract of Barleria cristata leaves / M Gambhire, M Juvekar, A Juvekar, S Wankhede, S Sakat / Planta Med 2009; 75 - PJ166
DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1234971
(12)
Barleria cristata L. / Synonyms / The Plant List
(13)
Barleria cristata / Vernacular names / EOL
(14)
BARLERIA CRISTATA: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PHYTOCHEMICAL, CYTOTOXIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF LEAF AND BARK EXTRACTS / Mukul Pathy, Tanvi Sharma and Sunita Bhatnagar* / EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL RESEARCH et al. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research, 2015,2[5], 586-593.
(15)
4-Hydroxy-trans-cinnamate Derivatives and Triterpene from Barleria cristata / Nipa Chowdhury, Abdullah Al Hasan, Fakir Shahidullah Tareq, Monira Ahsan and A.T.M. Zafrul Azam / Dhaka Univ. J. Pharm. Sci. 12(2): 143-145, 2013 (December)
(16)
In Vivo Assessment of Antioxidants and Antihyperglycemic Effect of Barleria cristata leaves in Streptozotocin- Induced Diabetic Rats / Narmadha Rajasekaran, Gomathi Duraisamy, Kalaiselvi Manokaran, Devaki Kanakasapathi / International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Vol 2, No 4 (2014)
(17)
Facile biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Barleria cristata: mosquitocidal potential and biotoxicity on three non-target aquatic organisms / Marimuthu Govindarajan / Parasitology Research, March 2016, Volume 115, Issue 3, pp 925–935
(18)
Iridoid and phenylethanoid glycosides from the aerial part of Barleria lupulina / Seoung Rak Lee, Jon Clardy, Donald Robert Senger, Shugeng Cao * / Ki Hyun Kim * / Rev. bras. farmacogn. vol.26 no.3 Curitiba May/June 2016 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2016.01.002

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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