HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT


Family Umbelliferae
Kulantro
Coriandrum sativum Linn.
CILANTRO / CORIANDER
Yan sui

Scientific names  Common names 
Coriandrum sativum Linn. Kulantro (Tag.) 
Coriandrum diversifolium Gilib. Wansuy (Tag.) 
Coriandrum globosum Salisb. Hu-sui (Chin.) 
Coriandrum majus Gouan Uan-suy (Tag.) 
  Chinese parsley (Engl.)  
  Cilantro (Engl.) 
  Yuan-sui (Chin.)
  Coriander (Engl.) 

Botany
Uan-suy is an annual, branched, smooth herb, growing up to 30 centimeters in height. Leaves are pinnately or ternately decompound; the ultimate segment of the lower leaves is ovate or lanceolate and deeply cut; the upper leaves are more finely dissected into narrow linear segments. Flowers are white, formed in umbels. Fruit is somewhat rounded and ribbeed. Seeds are convex-concave, about thrice as broad as they are thick.

Distribution
- Cultivated in the lowlands, popular among Chinese gardeners.
- Grows best in the Baguio area.
- Introduced.
- Apparently indigenous in the Mediterranean region and the Caucasus.

Constituents
- Fresh plant contains volatile oil, 0.12%.
- Coriander oil contain: coriandrol, d-ilinalool, licareol, d-d-pinene, p-cymol, trepinene, dipentene, geraniol, l-borneol, B-phellandrene, terpinolene, n-decylaldehyde, acetic acid, decyl acid.
- The fruit has a volatile oil, 0.25%; pentosan, 10.6%; furfurol, 6%; pectin, 1.1 to 1.7%; vitamin C; fat 19%; protein 11%, starch 10.5%, and potassium maleate 1.8%, fat 0.3%, and vitamin C3.

Properties
- Considered aromatic, antihalitosis, carminative, corrective, narcotic, stimulant; stomachic.
- Taste, odor, and medicinal qualities depend on the volatile oil.

Parts utilized
Oil, seeds, leaves, fruit.

Uses
Culinary
- Seeds and leaves are edible.
- Used as seasoning.
- A component of curry powder.
- Seeds used in confectionary and flavoring of gin and other spirits.
- Leaves are eaten raw with native dishes: kilauin, lumpia, pansit, paksiw na isda.

Folkloric
- Infusion of the fruit is used for dyspepsia.
- Pounded seeds inhaled for its odor to counter dizziness.
- Oil useful for flatulence, colic, rheumatism, neuralgia.
- Plant used for ptomaine poisoning.
- Seeds chewed for halitosis.
- Paste of seeds applied for headaches.
- Seeds used in lotions or bruised for poultice in rhuematic pains.
- Juice of fresh plant applied for erythema.
- Decoction of plant in milk (with sugar added to taste) used for bleeding piles.
Cold infusiion of seeds or powder made of dried seeds with a little sugar useful for colic in children. Also relieves internal heat and thirst.
- In Iranian folk medicine, recommended for anxiety and insomnia.

Others
- Perfumery: Used as fragrance component for soaps and cosmetics and flavoring in pharmaceutical preparations.
- Repellent: Fungicidal and bactericidal. Growing plant repels aphids. A boiled mixture of one part coriander leaves and one part anise seeds is effective against red spider mites and aphids.

Studies
Anticonvulsant: Results of study in mice suggest extracts of CS seeds may have a beneficial anticonvulsant effect in petit mal and grand mal seizures.
Anxiolytic / Sedative / Muscle Relaxant: In an evaluation of its anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus-maze, results suggest that the AE of CS has anxiolytic effect and a potential for sedative and muscle relaxant effects.
Diabetes: (1) Effect of coriander seed (Coriandrum sativum L.) ethanol extract on insulin release from pancreatic beta cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: Extract exhibited a significant decrease in glucose and an increase in beta cell activity. (2) Study incorporated the aqueous extract of coriander into the diet and drinking water showed reduced hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-diabetic mice. Results showed the presence of hyperglycemic, insulin-releasing and insulin-like activity in Coriandrum sativum.
Hypolipidemic: (1) The Effect of Feeding Coriandrum sativum Fruits Powder on the Plasma Lipids Profile in Cholesterol Fed Rats: Study showed a significant decrease in lipid profile in when given an 8% fruit powder mixed diet for one month. (2) Study showed Coriander seed oil have hypocholesterolemic properties in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. (3) Study on CS hypocholeterolemic effects suggests it may be due to the increased activity of plasma LCAT and enhanced degradation of cholesterol to bile acids and neutral sterols.
Endocine and Reproductive Organ Effect : Study did not show negative effects on testosterone or cholesterol levels, nor on reproductive and endocrine functions.
Anxiolytic: Study of the aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum showed anxiolytic effects and may have a potential sedative and muscle relaxant effects.
Collection: Study showed the collection of essential oil and other volatile compounds, harvesting must be accomplished at a special hour of the day.

Lead Elimination: Study results suggest C sativum is NOT efffective in lead elimination. The increase lead elimination in the studied groups of children may be due to other factors, ie., nutrition, education.
Anti-Inflammatory Elimination: Study of ethanolic extracts of three plants traditionally used in treatment of inflammation – C sativum, D stramonium and A indica, showed all exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in albino rats.
Essential Oil: (1) Study of the essential oil composition of Coriandrum sativum identified 41 compounds. Essential oil yields showed marked increase during the maturationn process. At the final stage of fruit maturity, the main oils were linalool (87.54%) and cis-dihydrocarvone (2.63%).
(2) Study showed that for obtaining higher essential oil yields, harvesting of plants must be accomplised at a special hour of the day.
Antioxidant / Flavonoids: (1) Comparative study on the free radical scavenging activity of the methanolic extracts of several plants showed C. sativum to have an IC50 of 58.36. (2) Study demonstrated the potential antioxidant activity of the fresh juice of Coriandrum sativum. The presence of flavonoids confirms it antioxidant activity.

Learning Benefits: Study evaluated the effect of C. sativum seed extract on second-generation mice. Results showed coriander does not improve learning within a short period of time after training; however, learning after coriander administration can be improved in the long term.
Antibacterial: Study evaluated the antibacterial effect of coriander essential oil against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Results showed the oil has an effective antimicrobial activity against all bacteria tested, except for B. cereus and E. faecalis.
Reversal of Memory Deficits: Study evaluated the effects of fresh C. sativum leaves on cognitive functions, total cholesterol and brain cholinesterase activity in mice. CSL produced a dose-dependent improvement in memory scores in young and aged mice, with interesting reductions in total choleterol and brain cholinesterase activity. Results suggest a potential useful remedy in the management of Alzheimer's disease.
Anthelmintic: Study showed C. sativum Linn. demonstrated anthelmintic activity against the Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma.
Immunostimulant / Fish Cultures: Study showed Coriandrum sativum exhibited potent immunostimulation with induction of the blood parameters in the experimental fish catla. It suggests a potential as a dietary additive or as an adjuvant to heighten the immune response in fish cultures.
Hypoglycemic / Hypolipidemic: Study of subchronic administration of CS-extract in rats normalized glycemia and decreased the elevated levels of insulin, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. Because of its effects on components of the metabolic syndrome, it is postulated the extract has cardiovascular protective effect.


Safety studies
GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) status.
Probably safe in amount used with foods.
Probably safe orally in small amounts for medicinal use.
Probably effective for dyspeptic complaints and increasing appetite.
No known interactions with drugs and other herbs.


Availability
Cultivated.
Cooking spice.
Essential oils, supplements in the cybermarket.


Last Update Janaury 2012

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE / SEEDS / Coriandrum sativum L. - coriander / Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE / Line Drawing / Coriandrum sativum / USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. Vol. 2: 647.

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Coriandrum sativum - L. / Coriander / Plants For A Future
(2)
Anticonvulsant Effects of Coriandrum Sativum L. Seed Extracts in Mice / Hossein Hosseinzadeh PharmD and Mohammad Madanifard PharmD /
(3)
Effect of Coriandrum Sativum L. extract on blood and urine lead concentrations in
3-7 year old children / Deldar K et al /
School of Nursing and Medical Toxicology Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
(4)
Effect of coriander seed (Coriandrum sativum L.) ethanol extract on insulin release from pancreatic beta cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / Maryam eldi et al / Phytotherapy Research • Volume 23 Issue 3, Pages 404 - 406
(5)

The Effect of Feeding Coriandrum sativum Fruits Powder on the Plasma Lipids Profile in Cholesterol Fed Rats / Suliman S H et al / Research Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 3: 24-28, 2008
(6)
Insulin-releasing and insulin-like activity of the traditional anti-diabetic plant Coriandrum sativum (coriander) / Allison Gray and Peter Flatt / British Journal of Nutrition (1999), 81:203-209 Cambridge University Press / doi:10.1017/S0007114599000392
(7)
Effect of Coriandrum sativum, a common herbal medicine, on endocrine and reproductive organ structure and function / Ebtesam A. al-Suhaimi / The Internet Journal of Alternative Medicine. 2009 Volume 7 Number 2
(8)
Coriandrum sativum: evaluation of its anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus-maze / Masoumeh Emamghoreishi et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 96, Issue 3, 15 January 2005, Pages 365-370 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.06.022
(9)
Diurnal Changes in Essential Oil Content of Coriander Aerial Parts From Iran / Sadrollah Ramezani et al / Research Journal of Biological Sciences 4 (3): 277-281, 2009

(10)
Comparative Studies on Anti- Inflammatory Activity of Coriandrum Sativum, Datura Stramonium and Azadirachta Indica / Gupta Sonika, Raghuvanshi Manubala and Jain Deepak / ASIAN J. EXP. BIOL. SCI., VOL 1 (1) 2010: 151-154
(11)
Gas Chromatographic Investigation of Coriandrum sativum L. from Indian Himalayas
/ Kamal Kishore Pande et al / New York Science Journal, 2010; 3 (6) Pande et al, Phytofood
(12)
Diurnal Changes in Essential Oil Content of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) Aerial Parts from Iran / Sadrollah Ramezani et al / Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 2009 | Volume: 4 | Issue: 3 | Page No.: 277-281 / DOI: 10.3923/rjbsci.2009.277.281
(13)
Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) seed oil improves plasma lipid profile in rats fed a diet containing cholesterol / Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan et al / European Food Research and Technology, Volume 227, Number 4 / August, 2008 / DOI 10.1007/s00217-008-0833-y
(14)
Comparative Antioxidant Activity Study of Some Commonly Used Spices in Bangladesh / S. Sultana et al / Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 13: 340-343. / DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2010.340.343
(15)
Dose dependent antioxidant activity of fresh juice of leaves of Coriandrum sativum / Panjwani D et al. / Journal of Pharmacy Research 2010, 3(5),947-949
(16)
The cholesterol lowering property of coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum): Mechanism of action / P. Dhanapakiam et al / Journal of Environmental Biology January 2008, 29(1) 53-56 (2008)

(17)
The effect of Coriandrum sativum seed extract on the learning of newborn mice by electric shock: interaction with caffeine and diazepam / Authors: Seyed Sadegh Zargar-Nattaj, Pooya Tayyebi, Vahid Zangoori, et al / Psychology Research and Behavior Management / Dovepress
(18)
Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil: its antibacterial activity and mode of action evaluated by flow cytometry / Filomena Silva, Susana Ferreira et al / J Med Microbiol August 2011 jmm.0.034157-0 / doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.034157-0
(19)
Reversal of memory deficits by Coriandrum sativum leaves in mice / Mani V, Parle M, Ramasamy K, Abdul Majeed AB / J Sci Food Agric. 2011 Jan 15;91(1):186-92./ doi: 10.1002/jsfa.4171. Epub 2010 Sep 17.
(20)
Anthelmintic activity of extracts of Coriandrum sativum Linn. in Indian earthworm / Chandan H.S., Tapas A.R.,, Sakarkar D.M. / International Journal of Phytomedicine 3 (2011) 36-40
(21)
Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Coriandrum sativum L. in Meriones shawi rats. / Aissaoui A, Zizi S, Israili ZH, Lyoussi B. / J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Sep 1;137(1):652-61. Epub 2011 Jun 28.


HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT