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Family Combretaceae
Lumnitzera racemosa Willd.
Lan li

Scientific names Common names
Lumnitzera racemosa Willd. Agnaya (Sbl.)
Accepted infraspecifics (2) Kulasi (Tag.)
Lumnitzera racemosa var. lutea (Gaudich.) Exell Libato (Tag.)
Laguncularia lutea Gaudich. Solasi (Tag.)
Lumnitzera lutea (Gaudich.) C.Presl Tabao (Tag.)
Lumnitzera racemosa var. racemosa Tabau (P. Bis., Tag.)
Bruguiera madagascariensis DC. Black mangrove (Engl.)
Bruguiera obtusa Steud. Tonga mangrove (Engl.)
Combretum alternifolium Wight & Am. White-flowered mangrove (Engl.)
Funckia karakandel Dennst. White teruntum (Engl.)
Laguncularia rosea Gaudich.  
Lumnitzera edulis Blume ex Laness.  
Lumnitzera racemosa var. ex pubescens Koord. & Valeton  
Petaloma albiflorum Zipp. ex Span.  
Petaloma album Blanco  
Petaloma alternifolium Roxb.  
Pokornya ettingshausenii Montrouz.  
Problastes cuneifolia Reinw.  
Pyrrhanthus albus Wall.  
Jussiaea racemosa Rottler ex DC.  
Rhizophora obtusa Dennst.  
Solasi is a common name shared by (1) Luminitzera racemosa, Kulasi, and (2) Ocimum basilicum, solasi, and and phonetically with (3) Ocimum sanctum, sulasi.
Lumnitzera racemosa Willd. is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
AFRIKAANS: Tonga-wortelboom.
CHINESE: Lan li.
KHMER: Kra:nhob sa.
MALAYALAM: Kadakandal.
SINGHALESE: Bariya, Beriya.
TAMIL: Tipparathai.
TELUGU: Thanduga, Kadavi, Kadivi, Than.
ZULU: Isikhaha-esibomvu.
OTHERS: Teruntum bunga putih.

General info
• Lumnitzera is a Indo-West Pacific mangrove genus in the family Combretaceae.
• The genus has two species of similar vegetative appearance with different flower colors: Lumnitzera racemosa has white flowers while L. littorea has red flowers. Both have flat and spoon-shaped (spathulate) leaves with emarginate tips.   (21)

• Etymology: The genus was named after the German botanist, Stephan Lumnitzera (1750-1806). The specific epithet racemosa derives from Latin, referring to the plant's flowering shoot, which consists of a central axis with stalk flowers along it, the youngest at the tip, the older ones lower.

• Kulasi is a tree reaching a height of 18 meters, flowering when 1 meter high or less. Air-roots are few in number. Leaves are fleshy, green, shining, narrowly obovate, 2.5 to 7 centimeters long, with rounded and notched tip and pointed base. Flowers are bright scarlet, about 8 millimeters long. Calyx is oblong-cylindric, green, 5 to 6 millimeters long, and short-toothed. Petals are white, oblong, about 4 millimeters long. Stamens are 10, as long as the petals. Fruit is green, woody, oblong, 1.5 to 2 centimeters long, and crowned by persistent calyx-rim, containing a single seed.

• Lumnitzera racemosa is a shrub, or tree up to 8 m tall, without the knee-shaped, upright breathing roots (pneumatophores) at its base. Foliage: Leaves are spirally arranged, almost stalkless, with fleshy leaf blades that are usually narrowly drop-shaped, and 2–9 by 1–2.5 cm. with wedge-shaped bases. Flowers: Stalkless white flowers are fragrant, and found on flowering shoots from the leaf axils. Fruits: Fruits are blackish-brown when ripe, oval or egg-shaped, slightly compressed on one side, two- or three-ridged, and 10–12 by 3–8 mm.

- Native to the Philippines.
- In beach swamps and along tidal streams in Rizal
, Bataan and Quezon Provinces; and in Mindoro, Panay, Negros, Cebu and Mindanao.
- Also native to Aldabra, Andaman Is., Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, Chagos Archipelago, China Southeast, Comoros, Hainan, India, Jawa, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Maldives, Maluku, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Queensland, Seychelles, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Western Australia. (9)

- Bark contains 15-19 % tannin; the leaves and wood contain smaller quantities.
- Studies have yielded a long-chain rubber like polyisoprenoid alcohol from the leaves, flavonoids and long chain fatty acids and low molecular weight carbohydrates.
- Study reported friedeline, ß-amyrin, taraxerol, betulin, ß-sitosterol, and triacontanol.
- Crude methanolic extract and fractions yielded flavonoids, quercetin and myricetin as main active components, together with quercitrin, quercetin-3O-hexoside, kaempferol 4'-methyl ether, kaempferol-3,4'dimetheyl ether, and bi-isorhamnetic and myricetin-7O-methylether(3-8")quercetin-2O-rhamnoside. (see study below) (2)
- Study isolated a new aromatic ester, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propyl-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-propionate, together with known triterpenoids, friedelin, betulin,
and betulinic acid. (5)
- Phytochemical screening of EtOAc fraction of MeOH extract of leaves isolated 8 compounds: a new cyclic compound together with seven known compounds viz.
3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid, 3, 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid methyl ester, Loliolide, Quercetin-3-O-(2''-O-galloyl)-rhamnopyranoside, Myricetin 3-O-(2''-O-galloyl)-rhamnopyranoside, Sophoretin, Lyoniresinol. (see study below) (14)
- Phytochemical screening of aqueous extract of leaves yielded phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, sterols, tannins, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, saponins, and quinones, with an absence of proteins and amino acids. (see study below) (17)
- Study of EtOAc layer from methanolic extract further partitioned with n-hexane and 75% MeOH isolated a new compound, racelactone (1), along with seven known compounds: botulin (2), 3,4,3'-tri-O-methyl ellagic acid (3), methyl gallate (4), myricitrin (5), stigmasterol (6), kaempferol (7), and isoguaiacin (8). (see study below) (18)
- Study of n-BuOH fraction of L. racemosa isolated one new flavonoid glycoside, myrcetin 3-O-methyl glucuronate (1), one new phenolic glycoside, lumniracemoside (2), and one new alipathic alcohol glycoside, n-hexanol 1-O-rutinoside (3), along with seven known compounds (4-10). (see study below (19)
- Phytochemical analysis of stem extracts in different solvents yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, tannins, and anthraquinones. (see study below) (20)

- Studies have suggested antibacterial, antioxidant, cytotoxic, hepatoprotective, antihypertensive , antiplasmodial, phytoremediative, antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, sperm immobilizing, carbon sequestrating/accumulating, anticancer, apoptotic properties.

Parts used
Leaves, stems, twigs.


- Leaves used as forage.

- Fluid substance made from incisions in the stem, mixed with coconut oil, used as anti-herpetic and as cure of itches.
- Elsewhere, used for treatment of diabetes.
- Wood: Used for piles, poles, house posts, ties, paving blocks, bridges, ship planks, decks, handles and cabinetry.
Fuel: Wood used as fuel for its caloric value. (•) In Cambodia, highly favored for charcoal making.
- Tanning: Bark used for tanning.

- Forage:
Leaves are edible; consumed by herbivores of Western Pacific Islands in times of food scarcity.

Antihypertensive / Corilagin and Chebulinic Acids:
Study investigated the antihypertensive activity of eleven hydrolyzable tannins from the leaves of LR. Corilagin and chebulinic acid were identified as the major active substances. (1)
Antibacterial / Phenolics: Study investigated phenolics and antimicrobial activity of L racemosa against fungi, virus and pathogenic bacteria. The crude methanolic extract and n-butanol fraction exhibited significant bacterial activity against all the bacterial tested, without activity against fungi and virus. Myricetin showed the most potent activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with marked activity against others. (see constituents above) (2)
Punicalagin / Orthostatic Hypotension Reversal: Punicalagin, an active principle isolated from the leaves of L racemosa reversed the fall in arterial blood pressure in conscious Wistar rats with orthostatic hypotension induced by hexamethonium. It was found less effective in prazosin-induced orthostatic hypotension. The effect is probably from a direct release of NE (norepinephrine) from the noradrenergic nerve terminals by punicalagin. (3)

Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant / Leaves: Leaf extract of Lumnitzera racemosa was evaluated for hepatoprotective and in vitro antioxidant activity in CCl4-treated rats. Results showed a hepatoprotective effect attributed to the presence of phenolic groups, terpenoids and alkaloids and in vitro antioxidant properties. (4)
Wastewater Treatment: Study evaluated three mangrove species, i.e., Lumnitzera racemosa, Avicennia marina and Rhizophora stylosa for use in wetland wastewater treatment systems. Lumnitzera was found to increase salinity. It also performed well on total nitrogen removal efficiency testing, and fair on phosphorus removal. (7)
Antibacterial: Study investigated the antibacterial activity of crude aqueous and ethanol extracts of mature leaves, tender leaves, bark and shoot of various mangrove species against clinical isolates of Shigella sp., Pseudomonas sp., and antibiotic resistant bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus sp. Luminitzera racemosa showed the most significant antibacterial activity. (8)
Antioxidant / Leaves and Stems: Study investigated the antiradical and reducing power activities of methanol extract of leaves and stems of Lumnitzera racemosa. Results showed better antioxidant activity by DPPH and reducing power assay in leaves than stems. Scavenging activity in leaves was 23.31 µg/mL while stems showed 111.5 µg/mL compared to ascorbic acid at 14.98 µg/mL. (10 )
Cytotoxicity / Antioxidant / Leaves: A methanol extract, Ch2Cl2 and n-BuOH fractions exhibited potent antioxidant activity. Isolated compounds exerted potent cytotoxicity in HL-60 cells, with IC50 values of 0.15 ±0.29 and 0.60 ±0.16 µM. Study of cytotoxic mechanisms included measurement of time-dependent changes in apoptotic markers and downregulation of p-ERK1/2, p-AKT, and c-Myc levels. (11)
• Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activities of various leaf extracts of Lumnitzera littorea against six human pathogenic microbes. Results showed antimicrobial activity with increasing concentration. The n-hexane extract was the most effective.
• Anticancer: Study evaluated the in vitro anticancer activity of crude methanol extracts of four selected mangrove plants viz. Brugiera gymnorrhea, Aegiceras corniculatum, Aegialitis rotundifolia, and Lumnitzera racemosa against HepG2 cell line using MTT assay. All four extracts showed anticancer activity. L. racemosa showed an IC50 of 195.1. (13)
• Hepatoprotective / Acetaminophen Induced Toxicity / Antioxidant / Leaves: Phytochemical screening of EtOAc fraction of MeOH extract of leaves isolated 8 compounds. Compound 8 showed high hepatoprotective activity against acetaminophen and compound 1 showed moderate activity compared to glycyrrhizin as positive control using HepG2 cell line. Compounds 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 showed highest DPPH radical scavenging activity. (see constituents above) (14) Study of an n-BuOH fraction of L. racemosa isolated 10 compounds: one new flavonoid glycoside, one new phenolic glycoside, one new alipathic alcohol glycoside, along with seven known compounds. Compound 7 showed the highest hepatoprotective activity against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity using human HepG2 cells. Almost all of the compounds showed stronger DPPH radical scavenging activity compared with standard Trolox. (19)
• Antiplasmodial / Leaves: A study evaluated the ethanolic extracts of 10 mangrove plants for in vitro antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falcifarum. The bark extract of R. mucronata (62.18 µg/ml) and leaf extract of L. racemosa (110.93 µg/ml) showed minimum level of IC50 values at significant (p<0.05) levels. (15)
• Antioxidant / Cytotoxicity / Leaves: Study of methanolic extract of mangrove L. racemosa leaves yielded 36 compounds. The methanolic extract, CH2Cl2 and n-BuOH fractions exhibited potent antioxidant activity with Trolox equivalent values of 24.94±0.59, 28.34±0.20, and 27.09±3.37, respectively. The isolated compounds also exhibited dose dependent cytotoxic effects, with compounds 1 and 14 showing most potent cytotoxicity in HL-60 cells with IC50 of 0.15±0.29 and 0.60±0.16, respectively. (16)
• Antioxidant / Anticancer / Anticoagulant / Leaves: Study evaluated the phytochemical composition, antioxidant, anticancer, and anticoagulant activities of aqueous extracts of roots of Acanthus ilicifolius and Lumnitzera racemosa leaves. The leaf extract of L. racemosa showed good antioxidant power as evidenced by an efficient DPPH free radical scavenging, with a lower IC50 of 38.89 µg/ml, in fair proximity to standard ascorbic acid at 21.71 µg/ml. In cytotoxic efficacy testing against HepG2 cancer cell line using MTT assay, L. racemosa showed an IC50 value of 26.05 µg/ml. On anticoagulant testing, the extracts also showed slight prolongation of coagulation times, suggesting inhibition of the common pathway, although not as effective as Heparin. (see constituents above) (17)
• Racelactone / Antiangiogenic / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves and Twigs: Study of methanolic extract of leaves and twigs isolated one new neolignan, racelactone A (1), along with seven known compounds (2-8). Compound 1 exhibited antiangiogenic effect by suppressing tube formation. Compounds 1, 4, and 5 showed significant anti-inflammatory effects with IC50s of 4.95 ± 0.89, 1.95 ± 0.40, and 2.57 ± 0.23 µM, respectively. (see constituents above)(18)
• Antibacterial Against Drug Sensitive and Multiple Drug Resistant Bacterial Strains / Stem: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of L. racemosa stem extract against clinically important drug resistant strains (S. aureus, B. subtilis, B. cereus, E. coli, and K. pneumonia) and drug sensitive strains (B. subtilis, E. aerogenes, and P. aeruginosa). All crude extracts showed antibacterial activity against drug resistant and drug sensitive test cultures, varying from one extract to another in terms of zone of inhibition. ZOI was compared with standard broad spectrum antibiotic Gentamycin. (see constituents above) (20)
• Effect on HeLa Cell Viability / Leaves: Cervical cancer is a malignant process of the cervix, 95% estimated to be caused by HPV (Human Papilloma Virus). Study evaluated the effect of L. racemosa mangrove extract on HeLa cell viability using leaf powder extracted by graded maceration. Results showed an LC50 of 56 ppm, meaning the extract has toxic properties. Extract yield was 11.58%, with water content of 22.17%, and total phenol of 2742.17 mg GAE. LC-MS study yielded suspected compounds of pyrogallol, isoniazid and caffeine. Phytochemical screening of the leaf extract yielded alkaloids, steroids, triterpenoids, and saponins. The ethanolic extract was cytotoxic to viability of HeLa cells with IC50 value of 493.33 µg/mL. (22)
• Sperm Immobilization Effects / Leaves: A leaf methanol extracts was used to assess sperm immobilization activity in measures of time (15 to 240 sec) and concentration (0.15 to 50 g). At 5 g, there was 90% suppression of sperm motility, while at 10 and 50 g it showed 100% inhibition. The activity was attributed to sperm plasma membrane breakdown. Results suggest potential as antifertility drug for birth control. (23)
• Carbon Accumulation / Sequestration: Carbon accumulation/sequestration by plants is a major function that contributes to the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, which depends on plant species and environmental conditions. Study evaluated two true Sri Lankan mangrove species, i.e. Lumnitzera racemosa Willd. (ten trees) and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (fourteen trees) with respect to their carbon retention capacity. A positive correlation (p<0.01) and non-linear relationship was revealed between dbh (diameter at breast height) and biomass. The average amount of carbon retained by L. racemosa was 9.16 kg/tree or 9.44 t/ha while that of B. gymnorrhiza was 5.6 t/ha., despite its greater capacity for individual carbon retention (13.76 kg/tree) due to relatively low density and basal area. L. racemosa contains higher percentage of carbon in the stems, branches and roots, revealing superior contribution to carbon-sink function of mangrove ecosystems. (24)
• Photoactivated Extracts against Human Mammary Adenocarcinoma MCF-7 Cells: Study evaluated three plant extracts viz. L. racemosa, Albizia procera, and Cananga ordorata for potential as sourced of photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy. MCF-7 cells were treated with plant extracts, which were irradiated with 5.53 mW and 0.553 mW broadband light. The crude extracts were nontoxic against cancer and non-cancer cells but when irradiated with 5.53 mW of broadband light, L. racemosa and A. procera showed cytotoxicity against MCF-7 with IC50s of 11.63 and 10.73 µg/mL, respectively. Using 0.553 mW broadband light, the IC50s were higher at 17.14 and 19.59 µg/mL. The photoactivated extracts were more cytotoxic against MCF-7 than non-cancer cell line, human dermal fibroblast-neonatal. The cytotoxicity of the extract was mediated by apoptosis. (25)

- Wild-crafted.
- Ornamental cultivation.

Updated February 2024 / Jan 2019 / Oct 2017 / Jan 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: Lumnitzera racemosa Willd.jpg / (Lumnitzera racemosa Willd. (Iriomote isl. Japan) / 2 January 208 / Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license / click on image or link to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Lumnitzera racemosa Blanco / Petaloma alba / Flora de Filipinas / Francisco Manuel Blanco (OSA), 1880-1883 / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Lumnitzera racemosa / Close-up of flowers / Ton Rulkens / CC BY-SA / Click on image or link to go to source page / Useful Tropical Plants
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Lumnitzera racemosa / Flowers, leaves and developing fruits / M Fagg  / Australian National Botanic Gardens / Click on image or link to go to source page / Useful Tropical Plants
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Lumnitzera racemosa / Leaf / © India Biodiversity Portal  / Non-commercial use / Image modified / Click on image or link to go to sorce page / India Biodiversity Portal

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Antihypertensive Activity of Corilagin and Chebulinic Acid, Tannins from Lumnitzera racemosa / Ta-Chen Lin et al / J. Nat. Prod., 1993, 56(4): pp 629–632 / DOI: 10.1021/np50094a030
Antibacterial phenolics from mangrove Lumnitzera racemosa / Lisette D'Souza, Solimabi Wahidulla and Prabha Devi / Indian Journ of Marine Sciences, June 2010; Vol 39, No 2: pp 294-298.
Punicalagin-induced release of norepinephrine reverses orthostatic hypotension in rats / Tzen Kwan Chang et al / Phytotherapy Research, Vol 8, Issue 6, pages 348–351, September 1994 / Publ OnLine Feb2006 / DOI: 10.1002/ptr.2650080607
Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of a mangrove plant
/ Sundaram Ravikumar, Murugesan Gnanadesigan / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2011; 1(5): pp 348-352 /
DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60078-6
A new aromatic ester from the mangrove plant Lumnitzera racemosa willd / Ammanamanchi S.R.Anjaneyulu, Yellajosyula L.N.Murthy, Vadali Lakshmana Rao, Karanam Sreedhar / ARKIVOC 2003 (iii) 25-30
Lumnitzera racemosa Willd. - COMBRETACEAE - Dicotyledon
/ Common names / Checklist of Mangrove species of South East India and Sri Lanka
The Effects of Mangroves on Pollutant Removal Efficiencies in Salty Water Types of Constructed Wetlands
/ Thesis 2012 / Chun-An Chiang

Antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of mangrove species collected from Southern Sri Lanka / Pushpa Damayanthi Abeysinghe / Asian J Phar Biol Res. 2012; 2(1): 79-83
Lumnitzera racemosa / Synonyms / KEW: Plants of the World Online
In vitro Antioxidant Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Methanol Extracts of Leaves and Stems of Lumnitzera racemosa / Firdaus Mukhtar Quraishi, B. L. Jadhav and Neeti Kumar / European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Vol. 8, Issue 1.
In vitro evaluation of the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of constituents of the mangrove Lumnitzera racemosa Willd. / Nguyen Phuong Thao, Bui Thi Thuy Luyen, Chau Ngoc Diep, Bui Huu Tai, Eun Ji Kim, Hee Kyoung Kang, Sang Hyun Lee, Hae Dong Jang / Archives of Pharmacal Research, April 2015, Volume 38, Issue 4, pp 446-455

ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF SELECTED MANGROVE PLANTS / R. K. Reddy and J. Ratna Grace / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research
Bioactive Compounds from the Leaves of Lumnitzera racemosa against Acetaminophen-induced Liver damage in vitro / Ahmed Gomaa Gomaa DARWISH, Mamdouh Nabil SAMY, Sachiko SUGIMOTO, Hideaki OTSUKA, Hosni ABDEL-SALAM, Mohammady Ibrahim ISSA, Emad Sabry SHAKER, and Katsuyoshi MATSUNAMI* / Journal of Arid Land Studies, 26-3, 183-186 (2016) 26-3, 179 - 182 (2016) / http://dx.doi.org/10.14976/jals.26.3_183
In vitro antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of mangrove plants from South East coast of India against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum / Sundaram Ravikumar & Samuel Jacob Inbaneson & Palavesam Suganthi & Murugesan Gnanadesigan / Parasitol Res / DOI 10.1007/s00436-010-2128-z
In vitro evaluation of the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of constituents of the mangrove Lumnitzera racemosa Willd.  / Nguyen Phuong Thao, Bui Thi Thuy Luyen, Chau Ngoc Diep et al / Arch Pharm Res.2015 Apr; 38(4): pp 446-55. / doi: 10.1007/s12272-014-0429-y
The antioxidant, anticancer and anticoagulant activities of Acanthus ilicifolius L. roots and Lumnitzera racemosa Willd. leaves, from southeast coast of India
/ Tanvira Paul, Seenivasan Ramasubbu / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, March 2017; 7(03): pp 081-087 / DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2017.70313
Components from the Leaves and Twigs of Mangrove Lumnitzera racemosa with Anti-Angiogenic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects / Szu-Yin Yu, Shih-Wei Wang, Tsong-Long Hwang, Bai-Luh Wei, Chien-Jung Su, Rang-rong Chang, and Yuan-bin Cheng / Mar. Drugs, 2018; 16(11) / https://doi.org/10.3390/md16110404 / PMID: 30366373
Effects of Hepatoprotective Compounds from the Leaves of Lumnitzera racemosa on Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Damage in Vitro. / Mambou Nabil Samy, Sachiko Sugimot, Hideaki Otsuka, Katsuyo Matsuna / Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo), 2016; 64(4): pp 360-365 / DOI: 10.1248/cpb.c15-00830 /
Invitro Antibacterial Potentiality of Luminitzera racemosa Against Multiple Drug Resistant And Drug Sensitive Bacterial Strains / Suri.Sunita, Pinapothu.Satya Veni, and Amara.Srinivasulu / Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences (IOSR-JPBS), May-June 2015; Volume 10, Issue 3 Ver. III: pp 01-05 / DOI: 10.9790/3008-10330105
Lumnitzera / Wikipedia
Effect of Concentration of Mangrove Leaf Extract Lumnitzera Racemosa on Hela Cell Viability / Ayu Kartika Fitri Ayu /  Journal of Stem Cell Research and Tissue Engineering, 2022; 6(1) / pISSN: 2614-1264 / eISSN: 2614-1256 / DOI: 10.20473/jscrte.v6i1.37511
Insights into phyto pharmaceutical studies of the under-utilized mangrove species of Lumnitzera racemosa wild: A review / K Soumya, A Srivani, G Krishna Mohan / International Journal of Herbal Medicine, 2022; 10(6): pp 25-31 / eISSN: 2321-2187 / pISSN: 2394-0514
Carbon retention capacity of two mangrove species, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Lamk. and Lumnitzera racemosa Willd. in Negombo estuary, Sri Lanka / K A R S Perera, W A Sumanadasa, MD Amarasinghe / Journal of the Favulty of Graduate Studies, University of Kelaniya, 2012; Volume 1
Plant extracts as natural photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy: in vitro activity against human mammary adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells / Rigo Baluyot Villacorta, Kristine Faith Javier Roque, Giovanni Alarkon Tapang, Sonia Donaldo Jacinto / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Bioscience, 2017; 7(4): pp 358-366 / DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.01.025

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: scientific name (most helpful), local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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