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Family Rubiaceae
Nino
Morinda umbellata Linn.
COMMON INDIAN MULBERRY

Ji yan teng

Scientific names Common names
Morinda umbellata Linn. Halon (Tag.)
Morinda microcephala Bartl. Nino (Tag.)
  Climbing noni (Engl.)
  Common indian mulberry (Engl.)
Halon is a common name shared by Amaranthus paniculatus Linn. and Morinda umbellata Linn.
Morinda umbellata L. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Ji yan teng, Yang jiao teng.
KANNADA : Maddibanne, Maddihambu, Maradarasina, Poppili.
MALAY : Mengkudu akar, Mengkudu hutan, Mengkudu kecil.
SANSKRIT : Daruharidra, Klibapushpa, Pitadaru.
TAMIL : Mancanaari, Manjanattikkodi, Mattikoddi, Noona kai,
THAI:  Yo yaan.
VIETNAMESE : Nhàu tán.

Botany
Nino is a large, diffused shrub, climbing by long, hairy, slender branches. Leaves are elliptic, 8.5 to 13 centimeters long, 3.5 to 5 centimeters wide, smooth on the upper surface, hairy beneath, and pointed at both ends. Inflorescences occur in stalkless terminal umbels about 1.5 centimeter in diameter. Corolla is almost notched, with a bearded throat; the corolla-tube is short, being less than 5 millimeters long. Fruit is compound, 2 to 2.5 centimeters in diameter, and irregularly lobed.

Distribution
- In Cagayan, Zambales, and Sorsogon Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro and Culion, In thickets and forests at low altitudes
- Also occurs in India to southern China and Malaya.

Constituents
- Roots yield a yellow dye.
- Root-bark contains a glucoside, morindine, and the coloring matter, morindone.

Properties
- Roots considered purgative.
- Antibacterial.

Parts used
Roots, leaves.

Uses

Edibility
In India, fruit is eaten while green in curries, or when ripe, uncooked.
Folkloric
- Boiled roots applied for dropsy.
- In America, roots used as violent purgative.
- Leaves, in conjunction with certain aromatics, used as decoction for diarrhea and dysentery.
- Decoction of leaves and roots used as vermifuge for children.
Others
- Rope: Stems serve as rough ropes in Ceylon.

Studies
Antibacterial / Leaves:
Study investigated the antibacterial activity of various leaf extracts of Morinda umbellata against ten different bacterial species, viz., Bacillus megaterium, B. subtilis, E. coli, K. pneumonia, M. luteus, P. aeruginosa, S. typhi, S. flexneri, S. aureus and S. epidermis. Solvents of ethanol and methanol extracts showed antibacterial activity against maximum number of bacterial species tested. (2)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Last Update May 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: Morinda umbellata L. / PHOTO / Berlayar Creek; Mangrove edge; 2009. / The Total Vascular Flora of Singapore Online / CLICK ON IMAGE TO GO TO PAGE SOURCE OF IMAGE / floraofsingapore.wordpress.com
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Morinda umbellata L. / PHOTO / Fruit / © / From Int J Curr Res Biosci Plant Bio, 2014 /

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Sorting Morinda names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher, / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE
(2)
Antibacterial activity of Morinda umbellata L. (Rubiaceae) Leaves by Resazurin Redox Method / R. Nagaraj, M. Prakash, and N. Karmegam / Int. J. Curr. Res. Biosci. Plant Biol., 2014, 1(5): 53-57


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