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Family Urticaceae
Ramie
Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaudich.
CHINA GRASS
Chu-ma

Scientific names Common names
Boehmeria candicans Hassk. Amirai (Tag.) 
Boehmeria nipononivea Koidz. Arimai (Ilk.) 
Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaudich. Dami (If.) 
Boehmeria tenacissima Gaudich. Hasu (Iv.) 
Boehmeria thailandica Yahara. Lipang-aso (Tag.) 
Boehmeria utilis (L.) André Labnis (Ilk.) 
Ramium niveum (L.) Kuntze Lapnis (Ilk.) 
Urtica nieva Linn. Ramie (Engl.) 
  China grass (Engl.) 
  Madame Parquet (Engl.)
  Ramie grass (Engl)
"Lipang aso" and its other common names are shared by two species of differing Genus: (1) Lipang-aso (Fleurya interrupta): lopa, lipang-kastila (2) Lipa (Laportea meyeniana): lipai, lipang-kalabaw, lipang-lalaki, lipang-doton, lopa, lupa. Both possess stinging hairs and can cause intense itching on contact. Fleurya interrupta is a weed=herb, up to 1.3 meters high; Laportea meyeniana, a shrub or small tree growing to a height of 3-5 meters. Ramie (Boehmeria nivea), also is referred to as "lipang-aso."
Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaudich. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CAMBODIA: Thmey.
CHINESE: Zhu ma.
FRENCH: Ramie.
INDONESIA: Rami, Haramay.
LAOS: Pan.
MALAYSIA: Rami, Rami-rami.
THAI: Po-paan, Po-bo, Taan khamoi.
VIETNAMESE: Name

Botany
Ramie is an erect, branched, monoecious perennial shrub, 1 to 2 meters high, with a single cylindrical stem, and hairy branches and petioles. Leaves are long-petioled, alternate, broadly ovate, 10 to 18.5 centimeters long, 6 to 14 centimeters wide, with tapering pointed tip, coarsely toothed margin, the upper surface green, roughened with few scattered hairs, the lower surface white, except the nerves, and densely covered with appressed, matted, white hairs. Flowers are small and clustered; the clusters arranged in axillary panicles shorter than the petioles; unisexual, apetalous. Staminate (male) flowers have 4 calyx lobes which are green in color. Stamens are 4.

Distribution
- Naturalized in Batan and Babuyan Islands.
- Cultivated in Mindanao and other parts of the Philippines for its fiber.
- A native of southern China.
- Now cultivated in many tropical and subtropical countries.

Constituents
- Bast contains lignin, 1.46%, and cellulose, 65.9%.
- Ash of leaves contains SiO2, 42.5%; CaO, 34.2%; K2O, 4.1%; NaO, 0.9%; MgOm 6.5%; P2O5, 4.8%; SO3, 1.84%; Cl2, 1%.
- Leaves contain chlorogen acid.

- Study on chemical constituents of leaves yielded: kiwiionoside, eugenyl beta-rutinoside, uracil, beta-sitosterol glucoside, 3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-benzoic acid, cholesterol, alpha-amyrin, and nonacosanol. (8)
- Study of roots yielded three compounds, viz. beta-sitosterol, daucosterol and 19-alpha-hydroxyursolic acid, obtained from the plant for the first time. (17)
- Leaves yielded flavonoids epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, and rutin. (see study below) (18)

Properties
- Mildly bitter and sweet tasting.
- Considered antipyretic, cooling, demulcent, diuretic, and resolvent.

- Like the common nettle of Europe, possesses styptic properties.

Parts utilized
Roots, stems and leaves
Propagation through cuttings from the rhizomes and by seeds.

Uses
Folkloric
· No known folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
· In China roots are reputed to be quieting to the uterus and recommended in threatened abortion.
· Pounded fresh leaves may be used as poultice for swelling pains caused by sprains.
· Regulates placental movement, hemostatic; for cold fever, urinary tract infection, nephritic edema, edema among pregnant women, abnormal placental movements, and excessive menstrual flow: 15.6 to 31 gms dried material in decoction.
· Used for wounds from poisoned arrows, for snake and insect bites.
· In decoction, used as local application in rectal disease.
· Leaves used in wounds and fluxes as astringent.
· Decoction of roots and leaves used as tonic in cases of dysentery.
· In Taiwan, used in folk medicine for hepatoprotection and hepatitis treatment.
· Malays use the leaves for poulticing boils.
· Used for treatment of fluxes and wounds, prevent miscarriages and promote drainage of pus.
Others
· Fiber: A source of fiber or a constituent of fabric with cotton, wool or silk. In the Philippines, the fiber is used for making strings, blankets, and cloth. It is one of the oldest textile fibers, used in mummy cloths in Egypt around 5000-3300 BC.
Papermaking: Also used for production of papers, bank notes and cigarette papers.

Studies
Anti-Hepatitis B: The study on the BN extract exhibited potential anti-HBV activity in the animal model of HBV viremia. (1)
Anti-Hepatitis B: BN extract significantly inhibited HBeAg and particle-associated HBV DNA secretion in an anti-HBV machinery different from the nucleoside analogues.
Antioxidant / Hepatoprotective: In a study of carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury, results suggest the hepatoprotective and antioxidative effects of BN probably involving mechanisms related to free radical scavenging.
(2)
Pollen-Induced Bronchial Asthma: B nivea has been established to be a cause of asthma. The study showed no cross-reactivity with Parietaria and suggests that ramie may be a new independent allergen. (5)
Toxicity Study / Embryonic Development: Commonly used to treat miscarriages, the test examined its safety for embryonic development in pregnant mice. Results showed B. nivea extract did not cause significant embyotoxicity or maternal toxicity in mice, although it caused cytotoxicity in cultured ECS (embryonic stem cells) at a high dose. (6)
Free Radical Scavenging Activity: Study of ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of the root showed profound free radical scavenging activities.
Antiglycosidase / Anticholinesterase / : Ethyl acetate extract showed maximum B-glucosidase inhibition. Leaf extract demonstrated the highest B-galactosidase inhibitory activity.
The plant also exhibited notable BChE and moderate AChE inhibitory activity. Results suggest the whole plant provides strong biochemical rationale for the treatment of T2 diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. (7)
Antidiabetic Potential / Glucose Uptake Stimulation: Study showed a reduction in high-fat diet increase in body weight, total cholesterol, and fatty liver, with improved fasting glucose level, blood insulin content, and glucose intolerance. (10)
Phytoremediation / Cadmium: Ramie has great ability to tolerate and accumulate heavy metals. Study showed the feasibility of phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated farmland by ramie cultivars that have obtained cadmium accumulating capacity through screening and training. (11)
GRP78 in inhibition of HBV secretion: Study of a root extract of B. nivea showed an inhibitory effect on blocking assembled virion secretion of HBV possibly through reduction of GRP78 (78-kDa glucose-regulated protein). (12)
Antidiabetic / Antihyperlipidemic / Antioxidant / Roots: Study of evaluated an 80% methanolic extract of B. nivea root for antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects in STZ-induced diabetes in male Wistar rats. Results showed significant reduction in fasting blood glucose and total cholesterol together with increased HDL, liver glycogen content, superoxide dismutase, with reduced glutathione and catalase levels. (14)
Anti-Hepatitis B Virus Activity / Leaves / Human HepG2 Cells: Study evaluated the anti-HBV effects of BNL extract in HepG2.2.15 cells transfected with human HBV DNA. Results showed reduction in the secretion of HBsAg and HBeAg in HepG2.2.15 cells. There was also a significant decrease in the content of HBV DNA in the medium secreted by the HepG2 cells. Among the fractions the CF and EAF exhibited the most potent anti-HBV activity. (15)
Ramie Pollen Induced Asthma: Ramie has been established to be a cause of asthma. The rate of positive reactions to ramie in intradermal tests was 11.7% among adult asthmatic patients in the Nagasaki area. Ramie pollen-specific IgE antibodies were measured by ELISA, with the positive provocation test group showing higher O.D. values than the positive intradermal test group (p < 0.05). In cross-reactivity study, results ramie may be a new independent allergen. (16)
Flavonoids / Leaves: Study evaluated the flavonoid content of leaves of Boehmeria nivea. The content of epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, and rutin was highest in the leaves. In commercial products, epicatechin and epicatechin gallate was highest in ramie tea. (18)

Availability
Wild-crafted. 

Last Update January 2016


Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
IMAGE SOURCE / Boehmeria nivea / File:Boehmeria nivea Blanco2.385.jpg / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A.) / 1880-1883 / Flora de Filipinas / Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
The Anti-hepatitis B Virus Activity of Boehmeria nivea Extract in HBV-viremia SCID Mic / Jia-Ming Chang et al / eCAM / doi:10.1093/ecam/nem180
(2)
Evaluation of the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Boehmeria nivea var. nivea and B. nivea var. tenacissima
/ Chun-Chung Lin et al / Journal of ethnopharmacology / 1998, vol. 60, no1, pp. 9-17 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(97)00122-0
(3)
Ramie / Boehmeria nivea

(4)
Inhibition of hepatitis B virus production by Boehmeria nivea root extract in HepG2 2.2.15 cells / Kai-Ling Huang et al / World J Gastroenterol 2006 September 21; 12(35): 5721-5725/
(5)
Ramie (Boehmeria nivea) pollen-induced bronchial asthma and allergenic cross-reactivity of ramie and Parietaria / Miura N / Arerugi. 1993 May;42(5):649-55./

(6)
The effects of Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud. on embryonic development: in vivo and in vitro studies. / Tian XY, Xu M, Deng B, Leung KS, Cheng KF et al / J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Mar 24;134(2):393-8. Epub 2010 Dec 30.
(7)
EVALUATION OF ANTIGLYCOSIDASE AND ANTICHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITIES OF BOEHMERIA NIVEA / Sandesh Sancheti, Shruti Sancheti and Sung-Yum Seo / Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., Vol.23, No.2, April 2010, pp.236-240
(8)
Chemical constituents from leaves of Boehmeria nivea
/ Chuang Liu, Kun Zou, Zhiyong Guo et al / Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi China journal of Chinese materia medica (2010)
Volume: 35, Issue: 11, Pages: 1432-1434 / PubMed ID: 20822015
(9)
Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaudich / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
(10)
Boehmeria nivea Stimulates Glucose Uptake by Activating Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma in C2C12 Cells and Improves Glucose Intolerance in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet / Sung Hee Kim, Mi Jeong Sung, Jae Ho Park, Hye Jeong Yang, and Jin-Taek Hwang / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Vol 2013 (2013) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/867893
(11)
Absorption and accumulation of cadmium by ramie (Boehmeria nivea) cultivars: A field study / She, Wei; Jie, Yu-Cheng; Xing, Hu-Cheng; Luo, Zhong-Qin; Kang, Wan-Li; Huang, Ming; Zhu, Shou-Jing / Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, B, Vol 61, No 7, 1 October 2011 , pp. 641-647(7)
(12)
Involvement of GRP78 in inhibition of HBV secretion by Boehmeria nivea extract in human HepG2 2.2.15 cells/ K.-L. Huang, Y.-K. Lai, C.-C. Lin1, J.-M. Chang / DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2893.2009.01072.x
(13)
Boehmeria nivea / Synonyms / The Plant List
(14)
EVALUATION OF ANTIDIABETIC, ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC AND ANTIOXIDANT EFFECTS OF BOEHMERIA NIVEA (L.) GAUDICH., URTICACEAE, ROOT EXTRACT IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS / Sancheti,Shruti, Sancheti,Sandesh, Bafna,Mayur, Kim,Hae-Ran, You,Young-Han, Seo,Sung-Yum / Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia 2011
(15)
Anti‑hepatitis B virus activity of Boehmeria nivea leaf extracts in human HepG2.2.15 cells / Jingchen Wei Lianku Lin Xiaojian Su Shaoyan Qin Qing Xu Zunian Tang Yan Deng Yuehan Zhou Songqing He / Biomedical Reports, Pages: 147-151 / DOI: 10.3892/br.2013.205
(16)
Ramie (Boehmeria nivea) pollen-induced bronchial asthma and allergenic cross-reactivity of ramie and Parietaria / Miura N / Arerugī = [Allergy] 42:5 1993 May pg 649-55
(17)
Studies on the chemical constituents of the root of Boehmeria nivea Gaud. / Li Wenwu, Ding Lisheing; Li Bogang / Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi. 21(7): 427-428, 448 (1996)
(18)
Quantitative Analysis of the Flavonoid Content in the Leaves of Boehmeria nivea and Related Commercial Products / Dong Gu Lee, Sunghun Cho, Jaemin Lee, Sanghoon Yang, Yong-Su Jung, Ho Bang Kim, Eun Ju Cho, and Sanghyun Lee* / Natural Product Sciences, 21(1) : 66-70 (2015)



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