Abang-abang is a smooth or nearly smooth shrub or small
tree, 3 to 5 meters in height. Leaves are three or four times pinnately
compound, 50 to 80 centimeters long. Leaflets are elliptic-ovate to oblong lanceolate,
6 to 15 centimeters long, toothed at the margins, pointed at the tip and rounded
or somewhat pointed at the base. Flowers are borne on large cymes,
up to 50 centimeters in diameter, five-parted and about 3 millimeters long, a few opening
at a time, the stalks and calyx are red, the petals, pale yellow. Fruit
is dark red, depressed-globose and about 8 millimeters in diameter.
- Common in thickets and secondary
forests at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines.
- Also reported in Taiwan, the Caroline Islands, and Yap.
- Leaves of Leea guineense (Leeaceae) yielded three hydrophilic flavonoids, viz., quercetin-3'-sulphate-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin-3,3'-disulphate, and a new flavonoid sulphate, together with kaempferol, quercetin, quercitrin, mearnsitrin, gallic acid and ethyl gallate. (See study below) (5)
- Leaves have yielded quercetin, kaempferol, mearnsitrin, gallic acid and ethyl gallate.
- Proximate analysis of seeds showed crude protein of 22.30 ±0.45%, crude fiber of 14.38 ±1.20% and ash of 6.96 ±0.16%.
Study also showed it to be a good source of dietary minerals especially potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese and copper. (see study below) (11)
- Proximate analysis of leaves yielded (% of dry samples) 7.43% ash content, 5.69% moisture content, 19.3% crude protein, 7.28% fat, 9.61% crude fiber, 50.7% carbohydrate.
- Mineral analysis of leaves (mg/100g) yielded 31.51 mg sodium, 31.21 mg potassium, 36.29 mg calcium, 28..68 mg magnesium, 30.18 mg zinc, 5.08 mg iron,
1.22 mg manganese, 35.53 mg phosphorus.
- Phytochemical analysis of leaves yielded alkaloid, tannins, saponins, steroid, phlobatannin/terpenoid, flavonoid cardiac glycoside, together with antinutrients phytin phosphorus, oxalate, phytic acid and polyphenol.
- Considered vulnerary, antidiarrheal, antihypertensive.
- Studies have shown antioxidant, antitumor, antihypertensive, anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic properties.
Roots, branches, leaves.
- Decoction of roots, branches
and leaves used for wound healing.
- In Thailand, root used for diarrhea and
- In southern Western Ghats, leaf juice of the plant is mixed with coconut milk, given three times daily for treatment of dysentery with blood discharge.
- Leea guineense popularly used for treating hypertension.
- In West Africa and Guinea-Bissau, plant used for epilepsy.
- Used for treatment of enlarged spleen in children, pregnancy detection, toothache, gonorrhea, diarrhea, dysentery. Also used as diuretic.
In a study of the potential antihypertensive activity of Brazilian plants,
Leea rubra was one of five plants (C brasiliense, C fruticosum, P roebelinii
and T catappa) that showed significant angiotensin-converting enzyme
• Antioxidant Flavonoids / Phenolic Acids / Leaves: Leaves of Leea guineense (Leeaceae) yielded three hydrophilic flavonoids, viz., quercetin-3'-sulphate-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin-3,3'-disulphate, and a new flavonoid sulphate, quercetin-3,3',4'-trisulphate, together with kaempferol, quercetin, quercitrin, mearnsitrin, gallic acid and ethyl gallate. The free radical scavenging effect was evaluated in the DPPH assay.
• Anticonvulsant / Neurobehavioral Effects: Study of an aqueous extract of leaves of Leea guineensis showed anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, antinociceptive effects through central mechanisms. The extract also caused concentration-dependent contractions on isolated toad rectus abdominis muscle similar to ACh and did not impair motor coordination and balance. (6)
• Antitumor / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the subacute toxicity, in vivo antioxidant and antitumor activity of an aqueous methanol extract of Leea guineensis on rats bearing carcinomatous cells. Results showed the extract is non toxic and exhibits significant antioxidant and antitumor effects. (7)
• Anti-Edematogenic / Anti-Inflammatory: Using the carrageenan-induced paw edema method, study of an aqueous extract showed dose-depended anti-edematogenic activity. Results support its use in the treatment of inflammatory conditions.
• Anti-Nociceptive / Anxiolytic / Anticonvulsant: Study of aqueous extract of L. guineensis showed anti-nociceptive, anti-anxiety, and anticonvulsant effects in murine models of pain (formalin test), anxiety (elevated plus-mazes and light/dark box tests) and convulsion (pentylenetetrazole- picrotoxin- and MES-induced seizure tests).
• Proximate Analysis / Seeds: Proximate analysis of seeds showed crude protein of 22.30 ±0.45%, crude fiber of 14.38 ±1.20% and ash of 6.96 ±0.16%.
Study also showed it to be a good source of dietary minerals especially potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese and copper. Fatty acid profile showed essential amino acids threonine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and histidine. (see constituents above) (11)
• Antioxidant / Anti-Tyrosinase / Leaves: In a study of 21 species of plants, fresh leaves of Leea guinensis showed most effective antioxidant activity (IC50=0.281 g/L) while dried leaves showed the best anti-tyrosinase activity
(IC50=0.374 g/L). (13)