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Family Solanaceae
Physalis angulata L.

Scientific names  Common names 
Boberella angulata (L.) E.H.L.Krause Assiyu (Bis.)
Physalis abyssinica Nees Putokan (Tag.)
Physalis angulata L. Tutulaka (Tag.)
Physalis angulata var. capsicifolia (Dunal) Griseb. Annual ground cherry (Engl.)
Physalis angulata var. dubia Kuntze Balloon cherry (Engl.)
Physalis angulata var. lanceifolia (Nees) Waterf. Bladder berry (Engl.)
Physalis angulata f. linkiana (Nees) Stehle Bush tomato (Engl.)
Physalis angulata var. linkiana (Nees) A.Gray Cape gooseberry (Engl.)
Physalis angulata var. normalis Kuntze Chinese lantern (Engl.)
Physalis angulata var. pendula (Rydb.) Waterf. Cow pops (Engl.)
Physalis angulata f. ramosissima (Mill.) O.E.Schultz Cut-leaved ground cherry (Engl.)
Physalis angulata f. tenuis Hassl. Fisalia (Engl.)
Physalis angulata var. villosa Bonati Goose berry (Engl.)
Physalis arenaria Nees Ground cherry (Engl.)
Physalis bodinieri H.Lév. & Vaniot Hogweed (Engl.)
Physalis capsicifolia Dunal Husk tomato (Engl.)
Physalis cuneata Rusby Tooth-leaved bladder cherry (Engl.)
Physalis dubia Link Wild gooseberry (Engl.)
Physalis esquirolii H.Lév. & Vaniot Winter cherry (Engl)
Physalis fauriei H.Lév. & Vaniot  
Physalis glaberrima Colla  
Physalis hermannii Dunal  
Physalis ixocarpa Nees  
Physalis lanceifolia Nees  
Physalis linkiana Nees  
Physalis linkiana var. arenaria Dunal  
Physalis linkiana var. venosa Dunal  
Physalis margaranthoides Rusby  
Physalis micrantha Link  
Physalis minima L.  
Physalis parviflora R.Br.  
Physalis pendula Rydb.  
Physalis ramosissima Mill.  
Physalis repens Nakai  
Physalis surinamensis Miq.  
Saraca angulata M.Martens & Galeotti  
Putokan is a local name shared by (1) Crotalaria retusa, kalog-kalog (2) Crotalaria quinquefolia, suso-susoyan,and (3) Physalis angulata, putokan.
Physalis angulata L. is an accepted species. (It has 37 synonyms) KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Hrankash.
CHINESE: Deng long cao, Deng long pao, Ku-zhi.
DUTCH: Klap.
FRENCH: Petit poc poc (Africa), Coqueret, Coqueret anguleux.
INDIA: Budda kodisha, Budda gochi, Njottanjodiyan, Mottaampuli.
INDONESIAN: Ceplukan, Ciplukan gunung.
PORTUGUESE: Camapu, Alquequenje amarelo, Balao rajado, Joa de capote.
RWANDA: Agahago, Umuhuhu.
SPANISH: Jua-de-capote, Bolsa mullaca.
SURINAM: Batoto wiwiri.
YORUBA: Koropo.
OTHERS: Nkabakabu.

Gen info
- Physalis is a genus of about 75-90 flowering plants in the nightshade family (Solanaceae), native to the Americas and Australasia. Cultivated and weedy species have been introduced worldwide.
- A defining feature of Physalis is a large, papery husk derived from the calyx, which partly or fully encloses the fruit.

Taxon confusion
- Physalis, a genus of the family Solanaceae consists of about 100 species. Among these, Physalis minima (pantug-pantugan) has been confused with P. angulata. Some compilations list them as synonyms, as other list them as separate species.
In Bangladesh, Physalis angulata has long been misidentified as P. minima, a common weed of fallow lands, waste lands and crop fields. After a critical examination, this species was correctly identified as P. angulata. (See below: 13)

Putokan is an erect and branching herb with angled and much branched stems, growing to 1 meter high. Petioles are 1 to 5 centimeters long. Leaves are alternate, oblong-ovate, up to 9 centimeters long with pointed tips and acute and unequal base with margins that are more or less entire. Flowers are solitary, campanulate, pale yellow, up to 6 millimeters long. Fruit is a berry, 1.5 to 2 centimeters diameter surrounded by an inflated and ovoid calyx.

Physalis angulata is an annual herb, 10 -100 cm tall; stem hollow, quadrangular, lower branches sometimes prostrate and rooting at the nodes, green, glabrous. Leaves simple, alternate, ovate, acute, margins irregularly toothed, petioles 0.5 -4.0 cm long, lamina 2.0-6.7 × 1.0-3.5 cm, slightly hairy. Inflorescence solitary, axillary. Flowers pedunculate, peduncles c 1.3 cm long, greenish-chocolate, glabrous, complete, bisexual, regular, actinomorphic, hypogynous. Sepals 5, gamosepalous, flowering calyx c 0.4 cm long, greenish-violet, margin slightly hairy, fruiting calyx c 3 cm long, green with purple ribs, glabrous. Petals 5, gamopetalous, pale yellow, with or without dark spots at inner surface, spots chocolate, slightly hairy. Stamens 5, epipetalous, basifixed, oblong, filaments c 0.4 cm long, light green, glabrous, anthers 2-celled, entirely pale blue, c 0.2 cm long. Carpels 2, syncarpous, style 1, c 0.5 cm long, off-white, glabrous; stigma 1, light green, glabrous; ovary 2-celled, c 0.2 × 0.2 cm, ovules many in each cell, light green, glabrous. Fruit a globose berry, enveloped in the bladder-like enlarged calyx. Seeds many, brown.  (13)

- Native to tropical America.
- Introduced to the Philippines during the Spanish times, now widely distributed.
- Propagated by seeds.

- Methanol extract of fruits yielded alkaloids, saponins, phenols, etc.
- Phytochemical screening yielded steroids, flavonoids, and alkaloids.

- Screening of various crude extracts for secondary metabolites yielded alkaloids, tannins, terpenoids, phenolics, and terpenoids. (see study below) (27)
- Hydrodistillation of leaves for essential oil yielded main chemical classes of diterpenes (31.7%), fatty acids (22.8%), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (22.3%), and aromatic compounds (13.6%). with trace amounts of monoterpene compounds. Major constituents were: phytol (31.7%) and hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (18.8%), with significant amounts of nonadecane (8.6%) and n-hexadecanoic acid (5.0%). (41)
- Study of n-butanol fraction from aqueous of extracts of dried leaves isolated three flavonoids, viz., quercetin, quercetin 3-O-methyl ester, and isoquercetin. (43)
- Study of stems and leaves isolated five new physalins, i.e., physalin V, a novel 1,10-seco one (1), physalin VIII (5), physalin IX, and two new ones, physalins VI and VII, along with eleven known analogues (3 and 7-16). (see study below) (46)
- Study of whole plant yielded four phenolic glycosides, i.e., methyl salicylate 2-O-triglycoside
(1), icariside E5 (2), quercetin 3-O-rutinoside (3), and isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside (4). (see study below) (49)
- Bioassay guided fractionation of whole plant identified two new withanolides (1-2) and six known analogues viz., physagulin F, physagulin K, physalin B, physalin F, physalin H, and 5-a-ethoxy-6ß-hydroxy-5-6-dihydrophysalin B. (see study below) (51)
-Bioassay-guided fractionation of whole plant of P. angulata isolated a novel physalin, 25-hydroxylisophysalin B (1) along with three megastigmane glucosides (2-4) and eight known physalins (5-12) (see study below) (57)
- Phytochemical screening of methanol extract of leaves yielded saponins, tannins, flavonoids, reducing sugars, anthracenosides and carbohydrates. (see study below) (63)
- Fruit is about 1.5 cm diameter, containing 6% sugars, 2.7% protein, 1.2% ash, 0.6% tannin, and 0.5% pectin, with a good quantity of vitamin C (24.5mg/100 cc juice). The calyx is toxic and should not be eaten.

- Phytochemical studies yield plant steroids Physalins with activity against numerous type of human and animal cancer cells.
- Studies have shown anti-inflammatory, genotoxic, antimicrobial, anti-leishmanial, immunomodulatory, molluscicidal, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-asthmatic, wound healing, anti-trypanosomal properties.
- Toxicity: While fruits are considered edible, caution is advised on other plant parts. The flowers are pale yellow and the yellow fruits are wrapped inside a balloon-like calyx, which is toxic and should not be eaten.

Parts utilized
Whole plant, leaves, roots, juice.

- Fruits are edible, sweet-tart; eaten raw, cooked, or jammed.
- Leaves are edible, somewhat bitter, eaten in salads.
- Roots and epigeal parts used for tea or infusion.
- Folkloric

- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- In the Amazon, leaf infusion used as diuretic.
- In Colombia, some tribes consider the fruits and leaves to be narcotic: decoction of leaves used as anti-inflammatory and skin disinfectant.
- In India, used for the treatment of asthma.
- In the Amazon, leaf juice used for worms. Plant used as sedative, depurative, anti-rheumatic.
- In Taiwan, used for the treatment of diabetes, hepatitis, asthma, and malaria.
- In the Solomon Islands, a decoction of fruit used for infertility.
- In the West Indies and Jamaica, leaves used to prevent miscarriages.
- In Peru, leaf infusion used for postpartum infections.
- In Peru and Brazil, roots are sliced, macerated in rum, honeyed, and used for diabetes.
- In Brazil, used for asthma, malaria, hepatitis, dermatitis and rheumatism.
- In Cote d 'Ivoire, sleeping sickness is treated with a mixture leaves of P. angulata and Anchomanes difformis. Lotion prepared from leaves used for ophthalmia in children. Leaves are eaten or used as enema to cure stomach ache, lithiasis and anuria, and added to palm wine to treat fever, asthma, vomiting and diarrhea. In Central and South America, it is used for malaria, toothaches, liver ailments, rheumatism and as diuretic and relaxant. Plant infusions used for treatment of gonorrhea, indigestion, nephritis and fever. In Papua New Guinea leaf decoctions used to treat constipation. Sap of leaves taken as abortifacient, although leaves used to treat sterility. (68)
• In Cameroon, Physalis angulata is used in herbal recipes for pregnancy termination. A dangerous practice uses dried and ground seeds which are wet with saliva and rolled into a ball and inserted into the vagina with expected fetal expulsion in a week. However, it is commonly accompanied by abdominal pains, severe bleeding, anemia, and sometimes, death.
- Others
- Fodder: In large quantities, leaves are poisonous to cattle and sheep. (Mention is made of toxicity to ruminants, but studies are lacking.)

Anti-inflammatory / Anti-Allergic: Study showed inhibitory effects against acute and subacute inflammation and significant inhibition of type IV allergic reaction in mice. (2) Flower extracts at 200 mg/kg p.o., administered for one week, inhibited 2,4-dinitro-fluoro benzene-induced contact hypersensitivity type IV allergic reaction in mice. (2) (64)
Genotoxicity: Study evaluated the in vitro genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of P. angulata using comet assay and micronucleus assay in human lymphocytes from 6 healthy donors. Results showed that although the Physalis extract was not cytotoxic, it exhibited important genotoxic effects on human lymphocytes in vitro, suggesting caution with its use. (3)
Antimicrobial / Physalin B: Study yielded complex physalin metabolites from the fruit capsules. A mixture of physalins B, D, F, and G inhibited S. aureus and Neisseria gonorrhea. Physalin B by agar diffusion inhibited S. aureus by 85% and may be considered responsible for the antimicrobial activity. (4)
Antileishmanial / Physalins: Physalins B and F were able to reduce the percentage of Leishmania-infected macrophages and the intracellular parasite number in vitro without no cytotoxicity to macrophages. Physalin F significantly reduced the lesion size, parasite load, and histological alterations in Leishmania infected mice. (6)
Lipid Benefits / HDL Elevation: Study showed that the flower extract of Physalis angulata in rats showed a significant elevation of HDL-cholesterol. (7)
Molluscicidal / Leaves and Roots: Study showed the ethanolic extracts from the leaves and roots of Physalis angulata are molluscicidal; while the ethanol extracts from the stem and whole plant was inactive. (8)
Immunomodulatory Effects: Study investigated different extract fractions of Physalis angulata (PA-VII, PA-VII-A , PA-VII-B, PA-VII-C) for immunomodulatory effects in mice. PA-VII and PA-VII-C exhibited a strongly enhanced blastogenesis response, together with a stimulatory activity on B cells (less on T cells). PA-VII, PA-VII-B and PA-VII-C caused augmentation of antibody responses. (9)
Anticancer / Breast Cancer Cycle Arrest: Study showed Physalis angulata inhibited cell proliferation and induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis in human breast cancer MAD-MB 231 and MCF-7 cells lines.   (10)
Anti-Neoplastic / Fruit Capsule: Study on its anti-neoplastic activity showed the most significant inhibition from the fruit capsule fractions. The extract of roots of PA is most often used for human hepatic disorders, but the substance responsible for efficacy is still undefined. Physalin F has shown antitumor activity against five human cancer lines, the most potent, anti-hepatoma H A 22 T.
Antimicrobial / Essential Oil / Aerial and Root Parts: Study showed the essential oil extract to have both antifungal and antibacterial properties, with more of the former. The activities are more concentrated in the aerial parts of the plant. (15)
Genotoxic Effects on in-vitro Human Lymphocytes: Study evaluated the in vitro genotoxic effects of an aqueous extract in human lymphocytes from 6 healthy donors. Results demonstrated the genotoxic effects of P. angulata extract on human lymphocytes in vitro. Although the extract did not show cytotoxicity, the in vitro genotoxic effects requires caution since in vivo genotoxicity has not been evaluated. (16)
Physangulidine A / Withanolide / Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells: Study evaluated the biologic effects of physangulidine A, one of three withanolides isolated in the study (physangulidines A-C). Physangulidine A significantly reduced of two hormone-independent prostate cancer cell lines. Results showed antimitotic and proapoptotic effects. (17)
Antibacterial / Anti-Staphylococcal Activity / Fruit: Study evaluated the inhibitory effect of zinc oxide ointment formulation and unformulated crude extract of fruits of Physalis angulata against clinical wound isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results showed significant inhibitory activity against S. aureus suggesting efficacy in treating staphylococcal infections. (18)

Anti-Ulcer / Leaves: Study evaluated the antiulcer effect of ethanolic extract of P. angulata leaves in different models of gastric ulceration in rats. Results showed a protective effect which might be mediated by anti-secretory and cytoprotective mechanisms. (19)
Topical Anti-Inflammatory / Physalin E / Experimental Dermatitis: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of physalin E, a seco-steroid isolated from P. angulata on acute and chronic models of dermatitis induced by 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and oxazolone in mouse ear. Topically applied physalin E potently inhibited the induced dermatitis, with reversal of effects by mifepristone, a steroid antagonist. (20)
Anti-Diabetic / Fruit Extracts: Study evaluated the in vitro antidiabetic activity of P. angulata fruit extracts. The methanol extract showed inhibition showed prominent antidiabetic properties in vitro with inhibition of alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase. (21)
Inhibition of Tumor Metastasis and Angiogenesis: Study of ethyl acetate extracts of P. angulata against human oral squamous carcinoma (HSC-3) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells showed anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic activity, with a potential for development of chemopreventive agent for cancer and inflammation. (22)
Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-Arthritic / Leaves: Study of various extracts and fractions of leaves showed in vitro anti-inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilization method and in vitro activity by protein denaturation method. All extracts showed positive response compared to standard Diclofenac sodium. (23)
Anti-Diabetic / Lipid Benefits / Roots: Study evaluated the antidiabetic potential of ethanolic root extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant reduction of blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL, with significantly increase in HDL. (24)
Anthelmintic / Larvicidal Leaves: A crude ethanolic leaf extract of P. angulata s0owed anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma. A crude ethanolic extract sowed larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus species of mosquito larvae. (25)
Anti-Asthmatic / Roots: Study evaluated the anti-asthmatic activity of an alcoholic extract of roots in ovalbumin induced experimental mice model. Results showed inhibition of ovalbumin induced asthma by decreasing the release of inflammatory mediators. The activity was probably through reduction of inflammatory mediator's release. ()
Antibacterial: Antimicrobial screening of ethanolic extract of plant at different concentrations of 25, 50, 100, and 125 mg/ml revealed various zones of inhibition from 8.2 to 17.2 mm for different organisms. (see constituents above) (27)
Anthelmintic / Larvicidal / Leaves: Study evaluated rude ethanolic leaf extract of P. angulata for anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma and mosquito larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus. Results showed significant paralysis and death of helminthes especially at higher concentration of 50 mg/ml, compared to standard piperazine citrate. Larvicidal activity was observed with LC50 value of 51.8802 mg/l. (28)
Antidiabetic / Fruit: Study evaluated the antidiabetic effect of an isolated compound from P. angulata in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The isolated compound significantly (p<0.05) reduced blood sugar level. Glibenclamide 150 mg/kg p.o. was used as reference drug. (29)
Anti-Inflammatory / Roots: Study
evaluated a lyophilized aqueous extract from roots of Physalis angulata for anti-inflammatory effect on inflammation induced by injection of 1% carrageen-an into subcutaneous rat's air pouches. Results showed powerful anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities, interfering with the cyclooxygenase pathway, lymphocyte proliferation, NO, and TGF-ß production. (30)
Physalins / Antinociceptive / Roots: Study evaluated the antinociceptive properties of physalins B, D, F, and G isolated from P. angulata in inflammatory and centrally mediated pain tests in mice. Results showed Physalins B, D, F, and G has antinociceptive properties associated with central, but not anti-inflammatory, events. (31)
Cytotoxicity / COX-2 Inhibition in MCF-7 Cells: Ceplukan (P. angulata) have shown cytotoxic effects towards various cancer cell lines: HeLa, KB, Colo 205, Calu and MCF-7 cells in vitro. One of the mechanisms of cytotoxicity is the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathway. Study of a 70% ethanol extract of P. angulata showed inhibitory effect on COX-2 activity in MCF-7 cell with IC50 of 37.57 ± 3.11 µg/mL. (32)
Anti-Leishmaniasis / Roots: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of roots of P. angulata on Leishmania proliferation, morphology, and the presence and contribution of physalins to its pharmacologic efficacy. Physalins A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H were isolated from the roots. Results showed AEPa effectively promotes antileishmanial activity with several important morphological alterations, with no cytotoxic effects on host cells. (33)
Physagulin-F / Anti-Diabetic / Fruit: Study isolated physagulin-F from Physalis angulata fruit. The compound was evaluated for anti-diabetic activity against STZ-induced diabetic rats. The compound produced significant (p<0.5) reduction in blood glucose level, similar to the blood glucose reduction (p<0.5) produced by standard drug, glibenclamide. (34)
• Intestinal Anti-Inflammatory Activity: Study e valuated the effects of P. angulata extract in a TNBS (trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid) model of rat intestinal inflammation. The standardized supercritical CO2 extract promoted significant reduction in MPO and ALP activities, reducing oxidative stress and neutrophil infiltration. Results conclude that the PA extract is an intestinal anti-inflammatory product that modulates oxidative stress, immune response and expression of inflammatory mediators and has potential in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. (35)
• Anti-Asthmatic / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of leaves of P. angulata for anti-histaminic activity using isolated animal smooth muscle models. Results showed inhibitory activity in guinea pig ileum preparation, guinea pig tracheal chain preparation and rat fundus strip preparation. Results suggest a potential source of an herbal drug with less side effects, less cost, and effective option for the treatment of asthma. (36)
• Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic leaf extract of Physalis angulata using acetic acid-induced abdominal contraction or writhing analgesic models in Swiss albino mice. The plant extract showed dose-dependent analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect. (37)
• Cytotoxic Withanolides / Cytotoxicity Against Cancer Cell Lines / Aerial Parts: Study isolated a new withanolide, Physaguilide P, together with five known withanolides (2-6) from the aerial parts of P. angulata. Compound 1 showed significant cytotoxicities against human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63, HepG-2 hepatoma cells and breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 with IC50s of 3.50, 4.22, and 15.74 µM, respectively. (38)
• Antinociceptive / Roots: Study evaluated the antinociceptive effect of aqueous extract of roots of P. angulata. Results showed marked antinociception against acetic acid-induced visceral pain and inflammatory pain responses induced by formalin in mice. (39)
• Non-Mutagenic Therapy to Food Borne Illnesses: Study evaluated the potential of P. angulata as an herbal oral ProVac for infectious diseases caused by food borne pathogens. Fractionated extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides and sterols that inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. The extracts showed no mutagenic effect against S. typhimurium TA 98. The partially purified herbal extract of PA showed antimicrobial activity against all food pathogens tested. (40)
• Physalin B / NOXA-Related Apoptosis of Human Melanoma A375 Cells: Study investigated the anti-melanoma effect of physalin B. Physalin B exhibited cytotoxicity towards v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF)-mutated melanoma A375 and A2058 cells with IC50 values lower than 4.6 µg/ml. Results suggest physalin B can induce apoptosis of melanoma cancer cells via the NOXA, caspase-3, and mitochondria-mediated pathways. Study suggests a potential as chemotherapeutic lead compound for the treatment of malignant melanoma. (42)
• Inhibitory Potential on Mycobacterium: Mycobacterium ulcerans disease is a serious threat for people living in rural remote areas. Study reports on a compilation of medicinal plants that demonstrated inhibitory potential on Mycobacterium ulcerans. A mixture of J. curcas, G. hirsutum, Physalis angulata, and D. regia inhibited the growth of 7 M. ulcerans isolates with MIC value of 6.25 to 25 µg/mL. The major constituents of medical important in P. angulata are physalins and withanolides. Its anti-inflammatory, antimycobacterial, antinociceptive, and antitumor activities together with its inhibitory effect on M. ulcerans support its traditional use for Buruli ulcer treatment. (44)
• Herbal Formulation Against Malaria / AM1: AM-1 is formulated from J. curcas, G. hirsutum, Physalis angulata, and D. regia. The herbal formulation was tested on patients with suspected malaria and evaluated for acute and chronic toxicity effects on Sprague Dawley rats. The AM-1 eliminated malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum and P. malariae) from the peripheral blood of patients with malaria. Furthermore, it did not show undesired effects in both patients and laboratory rats. (45)
• Physalins / Antiproliferative / Anti-Inflammatory / Stems and Leaves: Study of stems and leaves yielded five new physalins along with eleven known analogues. Compounds 9 and 10 showed antiproliferative activities against all tested human cancer cells with IC50 values of 0.24-3.17 µM. Compounds 1, 3, 4, 9, 10, 13, 14, and 16 exhibited inhibitory activities against NO production. (see constituents above) (46)
• Inhibition of COX-2 / Cytotoxicity: One of the mechanisms of P. angulata cytotoxicity is its inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathway. Study a 70% ethanol extract of P. angulata for inhibitory activity on COX-2 in MCF-7 cell. The EE showed an inhibitory effect on COX-2 activity in MCF-7 cell with an IC50 of 37.57 ± 3.11 µg/mL. (47)
• Immunomodulatory / Differentiation of Bone Marrow Cells: Study on the immunomodulatory properties of P. angulata showed the extract promoted the differentiation of bone marrow cells, particularly macrophages, with a potential as an immunomodulating agent. (48)
• Antibacterial / Physagulin / Fruits: Study evaluated the susceptibility of five human pathogenic bacteria to physagulin isolated from the fruits of P. angulata. Results showed inhibitory activity against all bacteria tested which was found to increase with increase in concentration. Maximum zone of inhibition was observed at concentration of 500 µg/ml. S. aureus and E. coli showed greater susceptibility. (49)
• Hepatoprotective / Phenolic Glycosides: Study of methanolic extract of whole plant isolated four phenolic glycosides. Compound 3, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity with IC50 of 17.08 µg/mL. against hydrogen peroxide induced Balb/c mice hepatocytes damage. (see constituents above) (50)
• Cytotoxic Withanolides / Whole Herb: Study of whole plant yielded two new withanolides (1-2), together with six known analogues (3-8). The withanolides exhibited strong cytotoxic activities against A549 (human non-small cell lung cancer cell line), Hela (human cervical cancer cell line) and p388 (human leukemia cell line) cell lines. Compounds 1 and 2 induced typical apoptotic cell death in A549 cell line in a dose-dependent manner. (see constituents above) (51)
• Diuretic / Leaves: Study evaluated the diuretic activity of methanolic leaf extract of Physalis angulata in rats. Furosemide was used as positive control. Results showed diuretic effect as evidenced by significantly increased urine volume, along with increased excretion of Na, K, and Cl- ions. (52)
• Physalin E / Anti-Inflammatory / Stem and Aerial Parts: Physalin E is a naturally occurring seco-steroid from stems and aerial parts of P. angulata. Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of physalin-E on RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharaide (LPS). Results showed physalin E significantly inhibited LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression and secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Physalin E exerted anti-inflammatory activities in LPS-induced macrophages and can inhibit the production of inflammatory cytokines by targeting the NF-kB signaling pathway. (53)
• Physalin F / Antitumor / Whole Plant: An ethanol extract of whole plant yielded physalin F and physalin D. Physalin F from the fraction PAIV-2 showed cytotoxicity in vitro by DEA and MTT assays on 8 cancer cell lines, five human cancer cell lines: HA22T (hepatoma), HeLa (cervix uteri), KB (nasopharynx), Colo-205 (colon) and Calu-1 (lung), and three animal cancer cell lines, H1477 (melanoma), Hep2 (laryngeal) and 8401 (glioma). Physalin D also showed antitumor effect against P388 lymphocytic leukemia in mice. Physalin D showed no activity. (54)
• Styrene and Methionine / Anti-Inflammatory: LC-MS/MS study isolated active compounds: styrene and methionine. In-silico study showed styrene and methionine have potency as inhibitory for GRK. GRK modulates the NFkB and TNF-α signaling pathways in the development of inflammation. The binding of styrene and methionine to GRK receptors decrease inflammation through inhibition of pro-inflammatory factors. (55)
• Antimycobacterial Physalins: Study bioassayed crude extracts and fractions from aerial parts of Physalis angulata for antimycobacterial activity. Physalins B, F, and D from fraction A1-29-12 exhibited MIC of 32 µg/ml against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain. (56 )
• Novel Cytotoxic Physalin: Bioassay-guided fractionation of whole plant of P. angulata isolated a novel physalin, 25-hydroxylisophysalin B (1) along with three megastigmane glucosides (2-4) and eight known physalins (5-12) All of the compounds exhibited cytotoxic activities against MCF-7 human mammary cells and HepG2 human hepatoma cells. (57)
• Pro-Apoptotic / Anti-Proliferative / Retinoblastoma Cells / Leaves: Study evaluated the effects of P. angulata leaf extract on apoptotic and anti-proliferation of retinoblastoma cells. Results showed the leaf extract improved apoptosis and significantly reduced the number of living cells in retinoblastoma cells. Improved apoptosis and decreased number of living cells occurred at a dose of 100 µg/ml. (58)
• Alleviation of Skin Fibrosis / Potential as Adjuvant Treatment in Scleroderma: - Double-blind randomized trial evaluated the effect of ciplukan extract as adjuvant on scleroderma skin fibrosis in standard therapy, based on modified Rodnan skin scale (MRSS), inflammatory biomarkers, immunology, and serum fibrosis. Results showed the extract with dose 3 X s0 mg for 12 weeks as adjuvant on scleroderma standard therapy alleviated skin fibrosis significantly based on MRSS and P1NP levels. (59)
• Physalin B / Suppression of Inflammatory Response to LPS in RAW264.7 Cells: Study evaluated physalin B effects on RAW264.7 macrophages stimulated by LPS. Physalin B significantly inhibited the expression and secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 induced by LPS. Physalin B can suppressed the inflammatory response to LPS in macrophages by inhibiting the production of inflammatory cytokines via NF-kB signaling. (60)
• Acute and Sub-Chronic Toxicity Study in Combination of Extract and Methylprednisolone: Study evaluated the safety of combination of P angulata (Cecendet) extract) and methylprednisolone with a single dose in mice (acute toxicity) and repeated doe for 90 days in rats (subchronic toxicity). Results showed no effect in mice behavior in singe dose therapy up to 5000 mg/kw (LD50>5g/kbw). In sub-chronic toxicity study with 1 g/kbw for 90 days, there were no deaths, organ toxicity, and effects on blood chemistries, blood cell count and urinalysis. (61)
• Anti-Sickling / Leaves: Study investigated the anti-sickling properties of aqueous leaf extracts of Physalis angulata and Dennettia tripetala on homozygous sickle cell erythrocyte. Treatment showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in GSH and SOD, and a significant decrease in catalase activities. Osmotic fragility testing showed an increase in membrane stability. Results showed both plants have antisickling potential and may be used for therapeutic management of sickle cell anemia. (62)
• Wound Healing / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of methanol leaf extract of Physalis angulata. Anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced foot edema model in rats showed significant (p<0.001) decrease in paw thickness therapeutically and prophylactically. In an excision wound model in rats, a cream formulation of the leaf extract (1.25, 2.5, 5, 10% w/w) showed significant (p<0.001) increase in rate of wound contraction with increased fibroblast proliferation, collagenation and re-epithelisation. Activity was attributed to the presence of saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. (63)
• Anti-Trypanosomal Activity: Various extracts of aerial parts, leaf, root, and fruit showed in vitro anti-trypanosomal activity against Typanosoma brucei rhodesiense between concentrations of 19-56 mcg/ml (Freiburghaus et al, 1969). (64)
• Antioxidant / α-Tocopherol: Whole plant extract of Physalis angulata was investigated for antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging activity. Column chromatography isolated purified compounds: a new compound squalen-1-ol, phytol, squalene, and α-tocopherol. The extract showed significant IC50 of 0.77 mgmL compared to standard ascorbic acid IC50 of 0.24 mg/mL. The antioxidant activity was attributed to the presence of α-tocopherol. (65)
• Acute and Sub-Chronic Toxicity Studies / Leaves: Study evaluated the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of P. angulata leaves us an in vivo model of albino rats and measuring effects on biologic and hematologic parameters.  Results caused no mortality throughout the study. The LD50 in acute toxicity study was greater than 5000 mg/kg. In the sub-chronic toxicity study of 21 days, the leaf extract showed reduction in cholesterol concentration and an increase in red blood cells. (67)
• Reduced Progression of Periodontitis by Immunomodulatory Mechanism: Study evaluated the protective effects of ethanolic extract of P. angulata (EEPA) in a murine model of chronic periodontitis. Mice were treated daily with EEPA (50 or 100 mg/kg), nimesulide (reference drug, 25 mg/kg) or vehicle by oral route for 14 days. Treatment with EEPA and nimeluside prevented alveolar bone loss, reduced mRNA levels of MMP-9, reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß and IL-6. EEPA treatment increased the production of anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-ß. No hematological or biochemical alterations were observed. In vitro luciferase assay suggested a putative mechanism of EEPA is reducing transcriptional activity of NF-kB. EEPA exhibited disease modifying effects. (69)
• Antifibrotic / CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis: Study evaluated the antifibrotic effect of ethyl acetate fraction of cipulkan on liver fibrosis induced by 20% carbon tetrachloride. The fraction lowered serum alanine aminotransferase levels (83.95 vs 175.23, p<0.05), along with microscopic histopathological changes (better Metavir score, p<0.05 and Ishak score p<0.05). Results showed an antifibrotic effect on rat fibrosis induced by CCl4. (70)
• Neuroprotective / Methotrexate (MTX)-Induced Toxicity: Study evaluated the neuroprotective effect of P. angulata extract (PAE) on MTX-induced neurotoxicity in male rats. Results showed that increase of oxidative damage in the cerebellum with MA was prevented by PAE treatment. PAE inhibited the effect of MTX on serotonin, immune protein IFN-γ, antioxidant enzymes and lipid oxidation. Results suggest that PAE scavenges free radicals produced by MTX and increases the activity of the antioxidant-defense system. (71)

- Wild-crafted. 
- Mullaca powder and tinctures in the cybermarket.

Updated May 2023 / June 2020 / February 2018 / October 2016

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Mullaca : Physalis angulata / Tropical Plant Database

Investigations of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Piper cubeba, Physalis angulata and Rosa hybrida / Eun-Mi Choi and Jae-Kwan Hwang / Journal of Ethnopharmacology Vol 89, Issue 1, November 2003, Pages 171-175 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00280-0
Genotoxic effect of Physalis angulata L. (Solanaceae) extract on human lymphocytes treated in vitro / Alves dos Santos R, Cabral TR, Cabral IR, Antunes LM, Pontes Andrade C, Cerqueira dos Santos Cardoso P, de Oliveira Bahia M, Pessoa C, Martins do Nascimento JL, Rodríguez Burbano R, Takahashi CS. / Biocell (Mendoza) v.32 n.2 Mendoza jun./ago. 2008
Studies on antimicrobial activity, in vitro, of Physalis angulata L. (Solanaceae) fraction and physalin B bringing out the importance of assay determination / Melissa TG Silva et al / Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Vol. 100(7): 779-782, November 2005
Antihepatoma activity of Physalis angulata and P. peruviana extracts and their effects on apoptosis in human Hep G2 cells / Shu-Jing Wu et al / Life Sciences Vol 74, Issue 16, 5 March 2004, Pages 2061-2073 / doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2003.09.058
Activity of physalins purified from Physalis angulata in in vitro and in vivo models of cutaneous leishmaniasis / Elisalva T. Guimarães et al / Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, doi:10.1093/jac/dkp170
Effect of some medicinal plants on plasma antioxidant system and lipid levels in rats / Eun-Mi Choi, Jae-Kwan Hwang / Phytotherapy Research Vol 19 Issue 5, Pages 382 - 386
Molluscicidal Activity of Physalis angulata L. Extracts and Fractions on Biomphalaria tenagophila (d’Orbigny, 1835) under Laboratory Conditions / José Augusto A dos Santos et al / Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Vol. 98(3): 425-428, April 2003
Immunomodulatory activity of various fractions derived from Physalis angulata L extract. / Lin Y S; Chiang H C; Kan W S; Hone E; Shih S J; Won M H / The American journal of Chinese medicine 1992; 20(3-4): pp 233-43. / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X92000242
Breast cancer cell cycle arrest is induced by Physalis angulata / Women's Health Weekly (2006-09-14)
Physalis angulata L. antineoplasic activity, in vitro, evaluation fromit’s stems and fruit capsules / I.M. Ribeiro et al / Rev. Bras. Farmacogn., v. 12, supl., p. 21-23, 2002.
Abortifacient Plants of the Buea Region, their participation in the sexuality of adolescent girls / Emmanuel Noumi and Claudette Djeumen / Indian Journ of Traditional Knowledge / Vol 6 (3), July 2007, pp 502-507
PHYSALIS ANGULATA L. (SOLANACEAE)-A NEW ANGIOSPERMIC RECORD FOR BANGLADESH / Nahid Sultana, M A Hassan, Montaz Begum, Mahbuba Sultana / Bangladesh J. Bot., 2008; 37(2): pp 195-198 / DOI: 10.3329/bjb.v37i2.1731
Sorting Physalis names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 The University of Melbourne.

Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils of Physalis Angulata. L / A Osho, T Adetunji, S O Fayemi, and DO Moronkola / Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2010; 7(4): pp 303–306.
Genotoxic effect of Physalis angulata L. (Solanaceae) extract on human lymphocytes treated in vitro / Raquel Alves dos Santos, Teresinha Rosa Cabral, Isabel Rosa Cabral, Lusânia Maria Greggi Antunes, Cristiane Pontes Andrade, Plínio Cerqueira dos Santos Cardoso, Marcelo de Oliveira Bahia, Claudia Pessoa, José Luis Martins do Nascimento, Rommel Rodríguez Burbano, Catarina Satie Takahashi / Biocell, 2008; 32(2): pp 195-200 / PMID: 18825913
Physangulidine A, a Withanolide from Physalis angulata, Perturbs the Cell Cycle and Induces Cell Death by Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells / E. Merit Reyes-Reyes, Zhuang Jin, Abraham J. Vaisberg, Gerald B. Hammond, and Paula J. Bates / J. Nat. Prod., 2013; 76 (1): pp 2–7 / DOI: 10.1021/np300457g
Antibacterial activity of the fruit extract of Physalis angulata and its formulation / A-M. Donkor, R.L.K. Glover, J.K. Boateng and V.Y. Gakpo / Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences (2012) 1(4): 21-26
Topical anti-inflammatory potential of Physalin E from Physalis angulata on experimental dermatitis in mice /
N.B. Pinto, T.C. Morais, K.M.B. Carvalho, C.R. Silva, G.M. Andrade, G.A.C. Brito, M.L. Veras, O.D.L. Pessoa, V.S. Rao, F.A. Santos / Phytomedicine 17 (2010) 740–743
Phytochemical Analysis And In Vitro Antidiabetic Activities Of Physalis Angulata Fruit Extracts / Sateesh Poojari, Raju Porika, Estari Mamidala / NJIRM. 2014; 5(2): 34-38
Inhibitory effects of Physalis angulata on tumor metastasis and angiogenesis / You-Cheng Hseu, Chi-Rei Wu, Hsueh-Wei Chang, K.J. Senthil Kumar, Ming-Kuem Lin, Chih-Sheng Chen, Hsin-Ju Cho, Chun-Yin Huang, Chih-Yang Huang, Hong-Zin Lee, Wen-Tsong Hsieh, Jing-Gung Chung, Hui-Min Wang, Hsin-Ling Yang / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 135 (2011) 762–771
In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Arthritic Activity of Leaves of Physalis angulata L / Shravan Kumar N, Kishore G, Siva Kumar G, Sindhu Priya E S / Indian J. Pharm & Ind. Res, Vol 01, Issue 3, Jul-Sep 2011
EFFECTS OF ETHANOLIC ROOT EXTRACT OF Physalis angulata ON ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS / Oladele,G.M., Ode, O.J., Akande, M.G.,Ogunbodede, M.A. and Simon, M.K / Int.J.A.PS.BMS , Apr‐Jun.2013, Vol.2.(2) ,095‐100.
Evaluation of In-vitro vector control activity of Physalis angulata. / Sandhya S*, Jafferi S.A.H, Vinod K.R, Ottilia Banji, David Banji, Chaitanya R.S.N.A.K.K, Chandrasekhar J, Venkataramana.K / Hygeia.J.D.Med .vol.2 (2), 2010, 14-21
Physalis angulata / Synonyms /KEW: Plants of the World Online
Secondary Metabolite Constituents and Antibacterial Potency of Physalis angulata against some Clinical Isolates / Marili Funmilayo Zubair, Ibikunle Ibitayo Anibijuwon, Mubarak Oloduowo Ameen, H A Abdulrahim / Nigerian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 2014; 29 (2): 161-165
Evaluation of In-vitro vector control activity of Physalis angulata. / Sandhya S*, Jafferi S.A.H, Vinod K.R, Ottilia Banji, David Banji, Chaitanya R.S.N.A.K.K, Chandrasekhar J, Venkataramana.K / Hygeia.J.D.Med, Vol.2 (2), 2010, 14-21
Anti-diabetic activity of compound isolated from Physalis angulata fruit extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats. / Porika Raju and Estari Mamidala / The Ame J Sci & Med Res, 2015,1(1); Pages 1-6. / doi:10.17812/ajsmr2015.11.1
Physalis angulata extract exerts anti-inflammatory effects in rats by inhibiting different pathways / G.N.T. Bastos, A.J.A. Silveira, C.G. Salgado, D.L.W. Picanço-Diniz, J.L.M. do Nascimento / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 118, Issue 2, 23 July 2008, Pages 246–251 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2008.04.005
Antinociceptive Properties of Physalins from Physalis angulata / Milena da Silva Lima, Afrânio Ferreira Evangelista, Gisele Graça Leite dos Santos, Ivone Maria Ribeiro, Therezinha Coelho Barbosa Tomassini, Milena Botelho Pereira Soares, and Cristiane Flora Villarreal* / J. Nat. Prod., 2014, 77 (11), pp 2397–2403 / DOI: 10.1021/np5003093
The Ethanol Extract of Physalis angulata Linn Inhibits COX-2 Activity in MCF-7 Cell In Vitro / EM Sutrisna*, Indwianiastuti, Haryadi / nternational Conference: Research and Application on Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Health Care (TCAM) June, 22nd-23rd 2012 Surakarta Indonesia
In vitro biological action of aqueous extract from roots of Physalis angulata against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis / Raquel Raick P. da Silva, Bruno J. M. da Silva, Ana Paula D. Rodrigues, Luis Henrique S. Farias, Milton N. da Silva, Danila Teresa V. Alves, Gilmara N. T. Bastos, José Luiz M. do Nascimento and Edilene O. Silva / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (ISCMR) 201515:249 /
DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0717-1
Anti-diabetic activity of Physagulin-F isolated from Physalis angulata fruits / Sateesh Pujari and Estari Mamidala / The American Journal of SCIENCE AND MEDICAL RESEARCH, 1(1): pp 53-60
Intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of Ground Cherry (Physalis angulata L.) standardized CO2phytopharmaceutical preparation / Luis Domingues Almeida Junior, Ana elisa Valencise Quaglio, Celso Acacio Rodrigues de Almeida Costa, and Luis Claudio Di Stasi / World J Gastroenterol. 2017 Jun 28; 23(24): pp 4369–4380 /  doi: 10.3748/wjg.v23.i24.4369|
Antiasthmatic activity of the methanolic extract of Physalis angulata Linn / Chhaya Rathore*, K. R. Dutt Shobharam Sahu and Lokesh Deb / Medicinal Plants Research, October 2011; 5(22): pp 5351-5355
Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Physalis angulata Linn. (Solanaceae) Leaf Methanolic Extract in Swiss Albino Mice / Cletus Anes Ukwubile*, Ikpefan Emmanuel Oise / IBBJ, Autumn 2016, Vol 2, No 4 (38)
Cytotoxic withanolides from Physalis angulata / Caiyun Gao, Ruijum Li, Miaomiao Zhou, Yanwei Yang, Lingyi Kong, and Kun Luo / Natural Product Research, 2018; Vol 32, Issue 6 / https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2017.1338281
Antinociceptive effect of the aqueous extract obtained from roots of Physalis angulata L. on mice / Bastos, G. N. T. Santos, A. R. S. Ferreira, V. M. M. Costa, A. M. R. et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2013; 103(2): pp 241-245 / ISSN : 0378-8741
Physalis angulata L. (Wild Gooseberry): A potential non-mutagenic therapy to food-borne illnesses / Nicole Angelique L Sanchez, Ma Aussielita L Lit and Roden C Yumol / International Conference on Food Safety and Regulatory Measures, August 17-19, 2015; Birmingham, UK / DOI: 10.4172/2157-7110.S1.027
Chemical Constituents of the Leaf Essential Oil of Physalis angulata L. / Akintayo L. Ogundajo*, Atikueke S. Akpome, Nimota A. Tijani and Isiaka A. Ogunwande / Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol 3, Issue 4, August 2015
Physalin B from Physalis angulata triggers the NOXA-related apoptosis pathway of human melanoma A375 cells / Chia-Chun Hsu, Yang-Chang Wu, Lynn Farh, Ying-Chi Du, Wei-Kung Tseng, Chau-Chung Wu, Fang-Rong Chang / ir.lib.isu.edu.tw
Flavonoids from the leaves of Physalis angulata Linn / Augustine A Ahmadu** and Ufuoma Omonigho / African Journal of Pharmaceutical Research & Development, 2013; Vol 5, No 1: pp 40-43
Update on Medicinal Plants with Potency onMycobacterium ulcerans / Patrick Valere Tsouh Fokou, Alexander Kwadwo Nyarko et al / Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015: 917086 / doi:  10.1155/2015/917086
Evaluation of efficacy and safety of a herbal medicine used for the treatment of malaria / Nii-Ayi Ankrah, Alexander K Nyarko, Phyllis G A Addo, Mark Ofosuhene, Comfort Dzokoto, Ethel Marley, Michael M Addae, Frederick A Ekuban / Phytotherapy Researc / DOI: 10.1002/ptr.1196
Physalins V-IX, 16,24-cyclo-13,14-secowithanolides from Physalis angulataand their antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities / Cheng-Peng Sun, Chong-Yue Qiu, Feng Zhao, Ning Kang, Li-Xia Chen & Feng Qiu / Scientific Reports, Vol 7, Article number 4057 (2017) / doi:10.1038/s41598-017-03849-9
The Ethanol Extract of Physalis angulata Linn Inhibits COX-2 Activity in MCF-7 Cell In Vitro / EM Sutrisna*, Indwianiastuti, Haryadi / International Conference: Research and Application on Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Health Care (TCAM) June, 22nd-23rd 2012 Surakarta Indonesia
Physalis angulata induces in vitro differentiation of murine bone marrow cells into macrophages / Bruno  José Martins da Silva, Ana Paula D Rodrigues, Luis Henrique S Farias, Amanda Anastácia P Hage, Jose  Luiz M Do Nascimento, Edilene O Silva / BMC Cell Biology, December 2014, 15:37
In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Physagulin Isolated from Physalis angulata Fruits Aginst Pathogenic Clinically Important Bacteria / Swapna Gurrapu and Estari Mamidala /  International Journal of Current Research. August, 2017; Vol 9, Issue 8: pp 55482-55486,
/ Hoang Le Tuan Anh, Duong Thi Dung, Do Thanh Tuan, Trieu Quy Hung, Pham Thi Hai Yen, Tran Hong Quang, Nguyen Xuan Nhiem, Chau Van Minh, Duong Thi Hai Yen1, Phan Van Kiem / Journal of Science and Technology, 55(2) (2017): pp 161-167 / DOI: 10.15625/0866-708X/55/2/8527
Cytotoxic Withanolides from the Whole Herb of Physalis angulata L. / Qinghong Meng, Jiajia Fan, Zhiguo Liu, Xiwen Li, Fangbo Zhang, Yanlin Zhang, Yi Sun, Li Li, Xia Liu, Erbing Hua / Molecules, April 2019; 24(8) / doi: 10.3390/molecules24081608 / PMCID: PMC6514790 / PMID: 31018606
Anti-inflammatory effects of physalin E from Physalis angulata on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells through inhibition of NF-κB pathway / Yan-Jun Yang, Lang Yi, Qing Wang, Binb-Bing Xie, Yan Dong and Cong-Wei Sha / Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicoogy, 2017; 39(2) / https://doi.org/10.1080/08923973.2017.1282514
Antitumor agent, physalin F from Physalis angulata L. / Chiang HC, Jaw SM, Chen CF, Kan WS / Anticancer Research, May 1992; 12(3): pp 837-843 / PMID: 1622143 
In silico study of Physalis angulata active compound from Bromo Tengger Semeru Nasional Park as anti-inflammation / Yuslinda Annisa, Sri Rahayu Lestari, Fatchur Rohman, Dwiyono Hari Utomo, Purwanto, Siti Nur Arifah, Jamaludin Bin Mohamad / AIP Conference Proceedings 2231, 040005, 2020 / https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0002529
Antimycobacterial physalins from Physalis angulata L. (Solanaceae) / A H Januario, E Rodrigues Filho, R C Pietro, S Kashina, D N Sato, S C Franca / Phytotherapy Research, 16(5) / https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.939
A Novel Cytotoxic Physalin from Physalis angulata / Jia-Jia Fan, Xia Liu, Xi-Long Zheng, Hai Yu Zhao, Huan Xia and Yi Sun / Natural Products Communications 2017; 12(10): pp 1589-1591
Pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects of Physalis angulata leaf extract on retinoblastoma cells / Marsha Dechastra Chairissy, Lely Retno Wulandari, Hidayat Sujuti / International Journal of Ophthalmology, 2019; 12(9): pp 1402-1407 / DOI:10.18240/ijo.2019.09.05 / PMID: 31544034
A Double-blind, Randomized Controlled Trial of Ciplukan (Physalis angulata Linn) Extract on Skin Fibrosis, Inflammatory, Immunology, and Fibrosis Biomarkers in Scleroderma Patients / Sumartini Dewi, Harry Isbagio, Erni Hernawati Purwaningsih, Nyoman Kertia, Rianto Setiabudy, Siti Setiati / Acta Medica Indonesiana: The Indonesian Juornal of Internal Medicine, 2019; 51(4)
Physalin B Suppresses Inflammatory Response to Lipopolysaccharide in RAW264.7 Cells by Inhibiting NF-κB Signaling / Yanjun Yang, Lang Yi, Qing Wang et al / Journal of Chemistry, Vol 2018, Article ID 7943140 / https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/7943140
Acute and Sub-chronic Toxicity Studies of Combination of Physalis angulata L. (Cecendet) Extract and Methylprednisolone on Animals / Elin Yulinah Sukandar, Shiane Hanako Sheba / IJIHS: International Journal of Integrated Health Sciences, 2019; 7(1)
Anti-sickling Properties of Aqueous Extracts of Dennettia tripetala and Physalis angulata / B M Onyegeme-Okerenta, E B Essien, J I Esin / Asian Journal of Biological Sciences, 2019; 12(4): p 772-778 / DOI: 10.3923/ajbs.2019.772.778
Anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties of methanol leaf extract of Physalis angulata L. / Adam-Yakub Abdul-Nasir-Deen, Yaw Duah Boakye, Newman Osafo, Eugene Kusi Agyei et al / South African Journal of Botany, 2020; Vol 133: pp 124-131 / DOI: 10.1016/j.sajb.2020.06.030
Ethno Medicinal, Phyto Chemical and Therapeutic Importance of Physalis angulata L.:  A Review
/ Dr P Ayodhyareddy, P Rupa / (IJSR) International Journal of Science and Research, 2016; 5(5): pp 2122-2127 / eISSN: 2319-7064
A new squalene derivative from Physalis angulata L. (Solanaceae) / Babatope Oluseun Odusina, Patricia Akpomedaye Onocha /  Natural Product Research, 2022; 36(8): pp 2154-2157 /
DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2020.1844691
Physalis / Wikipedia
Toxicity Studies of Physalis angulata Leaves Extract on Biochemical and Haematological Parameters in Albino Rats / Rita M Sunday, Olapade R Ilesanmi / Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicoloty, 2023; 18(2): pp 83-88 / DOI: 10.3923/jpt.2023.83.88
Physalis angulata - Agahago, Umuhuhu / Plantes de L'Afrique des Grands Lacs
Physalis angulata reduces the progression of chronic experimental periodontitis by immunomodulatory mechanisms / Paula Schons Vieceli, Paulo Jose Lima Juiz, Pedro Santana Sales Lauria, Ricardo David Couto et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2021; Vol 273: 113986 / DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2021.113986
Antifibrotic effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of ciplukan (Physalis angulata Linn.) in rat liver fibrosis induced by CCI4 / Enny Rohmawaty, Aziiz Mardanarian Rosdianto, Hermin Aminah Usman et al / JAPS: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2021 / DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2021.1101217
Impact of Physalis angulata on Methotrexate-Induced Neurotoxicity / Faiza Abdu / Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia, 2013; 10(2): pp 613-620

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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