Yellow bell is an erect,
branched, sparingly hairy or nearly smooth shrub, about 2 to 4 meters
in height. Leaves are opposite, odd-pinnate, and up to 20 centimeters in length,
with 5 or 7 leaflets. Leaflets are lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate,
6 to 13 centimeters long, pointed at both ends, and toothed at the margins. Flowers
are yellow, faintly scented, borne in short, dense, terminal clusters.
Calyx is green, 5 to 7 millimeters long and 5-toothed. The capsules are linear,
compressed, 15 to 20 centimeters long, 6 to 8 millimeters wide, pointed and hanging from
the branches. Seeds are numerous, less than 2 centimeters long, 7 millimeters wide and
furnished with a transparent wing.
- Widely distributed in cultivation, although scarcely naturalized in the Philippines.
- Native of tropical America.
- Planted as an ornamental throughout the tropics and subtropics.
- Phytochemical analysis yielded tannin, flavonoids, phenol, alkaloids, steroids, anthraquinones and saponins in all solvent extracts.
- Isolated from the seed kernels: water,
fixed oil, ash, tannin, resin, a bitter principle and a tannoid. From
the leaves, water, ash, fat, resin and resinic acid. From the bark,
water, ash, curnarin, a little fat, resin.
- Plant yields monoterpene alkaloids.
- Air-dried flowers yielded a new fatty acid cinnamate ester and a mixture of stigmasterol and sitosterol in a ratio of 1:1.
- In India, a foliage study yielded 17% crude protein, 6% ash, 18% fat, 25% fiber, and 14% total polyphenols.
Considered diuretic, tonic, anti-syphilitic, and vermifuge.
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Roots are reported to be diuretic,
tonic, anti-syphilitic and vermifuge.
- In Veracruz, decoction of flowers and bark are used for stomach pains.
- In some parts of Mexico and in central and south America, the plant is used in the treatment of diabetes.
In Guadalajara, roots used for making beer.
Inhibitory Activity: Screening of 20 extracts
from different parts of 10 Malaysian plants belong to 4 families showed
the methanol extract of leaves and stems of Stenolobium stans had moderate
inhibitory activity against soybean 15-lipoxygenase.(1)
/ Secondary Metabolites: Air-dried flowers of
Stenolobium stans yielded a new fatty acid cinnamate ester and a mixture
of stigmasterol and sitosterol in a 1:1 ratio. (2)
• Genotoxic / Cytotoxic Potential: Study evaluated aqueous and ethanolic extracts on bone marrow cells from BALB/c mice through mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations and cytotoxic effects on extracts of two MEF cell lines. the genotoxic potential of T. stans in in vivo and in vitro systems. There was no clastogenic effect. In vivo testing showed cytotoxic effects on mouse embryo in vitro, and suggests caution in the use of the substance as medicine. (5)
• Antiulcer: Study of ethanolic extract for antiulcer properties showed a reduction of gastric juice, pH, free acid ulcer score, and percentage of ulcer protection in pyloric ligated models. It was as effective as standard synthetic drugs like Ranitidine. Results showed a therapeutic potential for control of ulcer. (6)
• Antidiabetic: Study of evaluated the antidiabetic mechanisms of Tecoma stans and Teucrium cubense. Results showed both exert their antidiabetic effects through stimulation of glucose uptake in both insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant murine and human adipocytes without significant proadipogenic and antiadipogenic side effects. (7)
• Antimicrobial / Antioxidant: Study of methanol and ethanol extracts showed potent antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa, P. fluorescens and moderate activity against Xanthomonas oryzae. All solvent extracts showed high activity against Aspergillus and Alternaria. Although the DPPH radical scavenging activity was less than ascorbic acid, results showed a proton donating ability and a potential to serve as free radical inhibitors or scavenging, acting possibly as primary antioxidants. (8)
• Nephroprotective / Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity: Study an ethyl acetate floral extract showed an important role of reactive oxygen species and the relation to renal dysfunction and suggest a therapeutic potential of T. stans in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. (9)
• Antifungal: In a study of antifungal activity of nine different plant species, Tecoma stans showed to give the best zone of inhibition against the fungal activity.
• CNS Depressant Activity: Study in albino mice evaluated the CNS depressant potential of different extracts of T. stans flowers by measuring pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time and locomotor activity. The methanolic extract exhibited the highest depressant activity. (10)
• Anti-Obesity / Hypolipidemic / Flowers: Study showed a methanol extract of flowers to possess significant anti-obesity and anti-hyperlipidemic effects in rats fed an atherogenic diet. (12)
• Anticancer: Study evaluated the anticancer activity of a methanolic flower extract of T. stans in both in vitro and in vivo methods. In vitro antitumor activity was evaluated by MTT assay using Vero and HEP-2 cell lines. In vivo activity was evaluated using Ehrlich ascites carcinoma tumor model. Results showed the METS possess significant dose dependent antitumor activity. (13)
• Antispasmodic / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of leaves extract on rat ileum contractility. Results showed antispasmodic effect without involvement of ß-adrenoceptors, opioid receptors, potassium channels and NO production. Results suggest involvement of calcium channels in the spasmolytic effect.
• Antinociceptive / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study showed an alcohol leaf extract of Tecoma stans to have excellent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be due to its high phenolic and flavonoid content. (15)
• Nephroprotective / Cisplatin, Gentamicin, and Paracetamol Induced Renal Damage: Study of an ethanolic extract of leaves showed significant inhibition of cisplatin, gentamicin, and paracetamol induced renal damage in rats, an effect attributed to its antioxidant properties. (16)
• Corrosion Resistance on Mild Steel: Study evaluated the inhibition potential of mild steel by T. stans leaves. Results showed the extract to be a potent inhibitor on mild steel in acid medium. Polarization studies showed the extract to be a mixed type inhibitor. (17)
• Anti-Diarrheal: Study evaluated acute toxicity and anti-diarrheal effect of an ethanolic flower extract of Tecoma stans using Wistar albino rats. Results showed a significant anti-diarrheal effect attributed to flavonoids and tannins. The LD50 was10,715 mg kg, indicating it is not dangerous to use, as suggests a potential herbal therapy for the treatment of diarrhea. (19)
• Lipid Lowering Effect: Study evaluated the lipid lowering effect of the hydroalcoholic flower extract of T. stans in triton and diet induced hyperlipidemic models of wistar albino rats. There was significant attenuation of elevated serum total cholesterol and triglycerides with an increase in HDL. The lipid lowering effect was attributed to the interference of cholesterol biosynthesis and utilization of lipids. (20)
• Cardioprotective: Study evaluated the cardioprotective effect of a 70% ethanolic extract of flowers against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rat myocardium. Results showed the extract prevented a fall in antioxidants and retarded the elevation of cardiac damage markers in isoproterenol treated rats. Results were supported by histopathological findings. The cardioprotective effect was attributed to polyphenolics and phytofragments found in GC-MS analysis.(21)
• Antidiabetic: Study of T. stans stem extract in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats showed antidiabetic activity. Phytoanalysis yielded saponins, flavonoids, and monoterpenoid alkaloids (tecostanine and tecomine). The antidiabetic activity was similar to that of standard drug glibenclamide. In addition, there was reduction of triglycerides, cholesterol, and LDL. (22)
• Tecomine / Anti-Diabetic: Tecomine, an alkaloid with considerable hypoglycemic activity, was subjected to a stability study. Results showed pH dependent degradation of the alkaloid and that antioxidants are beneficial in delaying its deterioration. (23)
Wild-crafted and ornamental cultivation.
Seeds in the cybermarket.